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20/05/2008

Etude anglaise sur la relation entre les structures de soins institutionnels et l'adoption internationale d'enfants en Europe. Shihning Chou et Kevin Browne.

923794340.jpgThe relationship between institutional care and the international adoption of children in Europe.


Abstract



The study reported by Shihning Chou and Kevin Browne explored the link between institutional care for young children and international adoption, using a survey of 33 European countries. Official figures were available from 25 countries on the proportions of national versus international adoption within their own countries, together with the number of children under three in institutional care.
Results indicate an association between international adoption (both incoming and outgoing) and a high number of young children in institutional care.
The evidence suggests that, rather than reduce the number of children in institutions, international adoption may contribute to the continuation of this harmful practice.
A child rights-based approach to providing alternative care for children separated from their parents is proposed.



Conclusion and recommendations



This study was a preliminary attempt to explore the link between international adoption and institutional care for youngchildren.
The evidence does not support the notion that international adoption reduces institutional care. On the contrary, survey data suggest that it may contribute to the continuation of institutional care and the resulting harmto children (Johnson, Browne and Hamilton-Giachritsis, 2006).
International adoption should be considered only when it is in the best interests of the child (UNCRC Article 3).  It must be ensured that the child concerned 'enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent existing in the case of national adoption' (UNCRC Article 21c), taking 'all appropriate measures to ensure that in intercountry adoption the placement does not result in improper financial gains for those involved in it' (UNCRC Article 21d). According to the Council of Europe, 'there is no such thing as the right to a child' (Council of Europe, 2007).
There is a pressing need to reform international adoption services so that they cease to operate under a market mechanism and uphold child rights and the interests of children. In the meantime, it is important to investigate
this area objectively and take an evidence-based approach for practice.



Authors



Shihning Chou is a Research Associate, Child Care and Protection Unit, Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology (School of Psychology), University of Birmingham.
Kevin Browne is Professor in Forensic and Child Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Liverpool




Full text : The relationship between institutional care and the international adoption of children in Europe.

 

Source : British Association for Adoption & Fostering, Adoption & Fostering Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1. (2008), pp. 40-48.

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Relatie tussen Interlandelijke adoptie en aantal kinderen in kinderhuizen onderzocht




Een studie van de Universiteit van Liverpool naar de relatie tussen residentiele zorg en de interlandelijke adoptie van kinderen in Europa toont aan dat, in plaats van het verminderen van het aantal kinderen in kinderhuizen, interlandelijke adoptie juist zorgt voor het instandhouden van opvang in kinderhuizen. Interlandelijke adoptie blijkt niet bij te dragen aan de nationale ontwikkeling en hervorming van de kinderbescherming in het eigen land. In feite werkt interlandelijke adoptie er dus eigenlijk aan mee dat het aantal kinderen in kinderhuizen toe- in plaats van afneemt omdat het zendende land focust op opvang in die tehuizen, met als doel adoptie naar het buitenland, en geen of onvoldoende nationale alternatieven zoals pleegzorg en nationale adoptie ontwikkelt.



Bron : Better Care Network Netherlands

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Some references



- Intercountry adoption
UNICEF International Child Development Centre, Innocenti Digest, 1999.


- Child Protection: A Handbook for Parliamentarians
UNICEF (2004) - english & french


- Overuse of institutional care for children in Europe. Kevin Browne-Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis-Rebecca Johnson-Mikael Ostergren.

Children in institutional care are at risk of attachment disorder and developmental delay, but Europe still relies heavily on this form of care for children in adversity.
British Medical Journal - BMJ 2006;332:485-487 (25 February), doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7539.485


- New concerns about international adoption

'Madonna-style' inter-country adoptions are causing a rise in the number of children in orphanages, University of Liverpool psychologists concluded recently.
Universty of Liverpool - Research intelligence


- Rise in institutionalised children linked to 'Madonna-style' adoption

7 April 2008: Psychologists at the University of Liverpool say that 'Madonna-style' inter-country adoptions are causing a rise in the number of children in orphanages.
University of Liverpool.