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03/09/2008

Népal. Etude sur les adoptions internationales.

Adopting-Nepal-TDH.jpgNon pas le profit mais les droits de l'enfant doivent guider les adoptions au Népal. C'est ce qu'affirme une étude majeure, publiée le 29.8.08 à Katmandou par l'Unicef et par Terre des hommes.


L'étude "Adopting the rights of the child: a study on intercountry adoption and its influence on child protection in Nepal" (60 pages) conclut que des adoptions internationales ne devraient pas être autorisées sans disposer des garanties aux différents niveaux. Seuls quatre enfants sur cent adoptés au Népal le sont par une famille népalaise. Et beaucoup d'enfants proposés à l'adoption ne sont pas orphelins mais ont été séparés de leurs familles.


Source : Terre des hommes.


ADOPTING the rights of the child
A study on intercountry adoption and its influence on child protection in Nepal


Published by Terre des hommes Foundation, Lausanne, together with UNICEF
August 2008



Kathmandu August 29, 2008
Child rights, not profit, must be at the centre of all adoptions in Nepal says a major study on adoption released today in Kathmandu by the United Nations Children’s Fund, UNICEF and Terre des hommes (Tdh).

 

The main conclusion of the 60-page report, ‘Adopting the rights of the child: a study on intercountry adoption and its influence on child protection in Nepal’, is that intercountry adoption should not be allowed to resume without appropriate safeguards being put in place at all levels.

 

Only four out of every 100 children adopted in Nepal are adopted by a Nepali family and many children put up for adoption are not orphaned in the true sense of the word but are separated from their families.

 

The study indicates that abuses such as the sale, abduction and trafficking of children is taking place in an under-regulated environment.   “An industry has grown up around adoption in which profit rather than the best interests of the child takes centre stage,” said UNICEF Nepal Representative, Ms. Gillian Mellsop. “Appropriate legal safeguards and a functioning alternative care to parental care can prevent abuse and allow intercountry adoption to continue for those who need it.”



According to the study, the standard of care and protection in many orphanages does not respect the rights of the child.  There are approximately 15,000 children in orphanages or children’s homes in Nepal, many of whose parents have died.  However, a significant number of admissions in these homes are a result of fraud, coercion and malpractice.  “The vast majority of children in institutional care don’t need to be there,” said Tdh Country Representative Joseph Aguettant. “They have family, including extended family, that may be able to provide care with proper support and some initial monitoring to ensure the child is safe. The first priority, therefore, should be to reunify 80% of the children in institutions with their families, not to re-open intercountry adoption.”  He added that such a de-institutionalization programme should go hand in hand with better monitoring of centres and improvement of living conditions for the children.

 

UNICEF and Tdh applauded the announcement that the Government of the Republic of Nepal will ratify the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (1993) but emphasised that ratification and enactment of domestic legislation should take place before intercountry adoption procedures are allowed to resume to help ensure the best interests of the child. It was observed that some progress is being made to regulate intercountry adoption such as the new conditions and procedures recently endorsed by the Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare, and the initiation of the registration process for adoption agencies.

 

The authors of the study intend its launch to act as a catalyst towards greater civil society debate on the subject of adoptions and child rights in Nepal and to encourage further deliberation among children’s homes that want to resume adoption procedures immediately and unconditionally and those who would prefer to wait until further guarantees are in place.

 

Bron: Better Care Network Netherlands.

 

- REPORT OF MISSION TO NEPAL 23-27 NOVEMBER 2009 : INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME
HAGUE CONFERENCE ON PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW
 

- NÉPAL: Inquiétude grandissante face aux adoptions illégales

Depuis quatre ans, Nirmala Thapa, 35 ans, lutte pour récupérer ses trois enfants, qui vivent en Espagne depuis qu’ils ont été adoptés illégalement par l’intermédiaire d’un foyer népalais pour enfants.
IRIN Service français - nouvelles et analyses humanitaires.

 

- Adopter un enfant : à tout prix ?

"Terre des hommes" pointe les lacunes législatives des pays d'accueil. L'organisation fustige en particulier l'adoption privée. "Souvent, les parents ne sont pas conscients qu'ils sont piégés dans des situations de trafic d'enfants."

C'est l'histoire d'une Française, qui s'est directement adressée à un orphelinat à Katmandou pour adopter un petit Népalais. Moyennant 3 000 dollars, on lui a envoyé la photo de l'enfant promis. Sans même vérifier si elle avait obtenu l'agrément des autorités françaises. Sans même donner de garanties d'adoptabilité de l'enfant.

"Au Népal, ils sont spécialistes. On déclare un enfant trouvé, avec rapport de police, alors qu'il a toute sa famille. On lui vole son identité" , explique Marlène Hofstetter, responsable du dossier "Adoption internationale" à la Fondation "Terre des hommes".

L'organisation, qui vient de publier un rapport "pour une responsabilité éthique des pays d'accueil", fustige précisément l'adoption privée, telle qu'elle est encore pratiquée en France, en Espagne ou en Suisse - mais plus en Belgique, sans le recours à un organisme agréé d'adoption.

"Les pires abus"

Elle s'inquiète plus encore lorsque des parents partent à la recherche d'un gamin, sur Internet par exemple, dans des pays qui n'ont pas ratifié la Convention de La Haye réglementant l'adoption entre pays depuis 1993. "Des couples travaillent à l'étranger ou ont des contacts avec ces Etats, et nous n'avons pas voulu faire d'exclusion", justifie Wolfgang Meincke, responsable du placement des enfants au ministère allemand de la Famille. "Mais nous n'avions pas, en 2001, évalué les risques de l'adoption privée", reconnaît-il.

"Ce type de procédure est le lieu potentiel des pires abus de l'adoption internationale : sélection des enfants par les candidats adoptants, pressions sur les parents d'origine, corruption, faux documents, illégalités procédurales, enlèvements d'enfants", égrènent les auteurs du rapport intitulé "Adoption : à quel prix ?" et présenté hier à Bruxelles. Or, en France et en Suisse, deux tiers des adoptions internationales passent par cette filière. "Et souvent, les parents ne sont pas conscients qu'ils sont piégés dans des situations très complexes de trafic d'enfants", précise Marlène Hofstetter. Les lacunes législatives des pays d'accueil sont considérées comme des facteurs favorisant la corruption, la pression et l'illégalité.

"Par la pression sur les pays d'origine que représentent des centaines, voire des milliers d'adoptants individuels insistant auprès des mêmes autorités surchargées, l'adoption privée constitue en outre un frein essentiel au développement d'une adoption internationale centrée sur les enfants et non les adultes", remarque "Terre des hommes". "Notre but est de donner une famille à un enfant et non un enfant à une famille", se défend Richard Bos, secrétaire général de l'Autorité centrale en France, très critiquée par l'organisation.

L'un des problèmes fondamentaux, c'est que, contrairement aux idées reçues, la demande dépasse l'offre. En Belgique, citée en exemple par "Terre des hommes", on informe les parents que l'environnement international est fait de "possibilités décroissante et de concurrence croissante", indique Didier Dehou, directeur de l'Autorité centrale communautaire française. "Nous savons pertinemment que la demande croissante ne sera peut-être pas rencontrée."


Source : La Libre Belgique. 27/02/2008.

 

Commentaires

Nepal 'should suspend' adoptions

The adoption of children from Nepal should be suspended, the international body that governs adoption between countries has recommended.

An investigation found children from remote areas were falsely declared to be orphans and put up for adoption without their parents' knowledge.

A draft report by The Hague Conference on Private International Law urges Nepal to take steps to prevent abuses.

Nepal temporarily suspended international adoptions in 2007.

It introduced new rules in 2008 and international adoptions were resumed.

Documents faked

But the report from the Hague Conference says that abuses are still rife. Its investigation found that documents which declared children as orphans were often faked.

Children who were put up for overseas adoption had been taken from their families to care homes in the capital, Kathmandu, under the pretext of receiving education.

The probe found evidence of "false statements" about the child's origin, age and status; lack of transparency and accountability for the money coming into Nepal from international adoptions; and an absence of a policy on such adoptions.

It said Nepal had failed to prevent the abduction, sale and traffic of children and recommended the government suspend international adoptions to allow new laws and procedures to be implemented.

The report follows a probe by Unicef, and other NGOs. The Swiss-funded charity, Terre des hommes, said it found that more than 60% of children in orphanages had parents who could take care of them.

"The Hague report makes a very strong finding which is that there is evidence of abuse in terms of paperwork. Paperwork is created to declare the child an orphan whereas the child... could be supported in the family," Terre des hommes Nepal country director, Joseph Aguettant, told the BBC's Joanna Jolly in Kathmandu

Unicef and Terre des hommes have previously reported that it is common for Nepalese children to be abducted, trafficked and, in effect, sold.

Nepal's adopted children mainly go to Spain, France, Germany, Italy and the US.

Our correspondent says that the report has been welcomed by those working in child protection in Nepal who say the proper safeguards need to be in place before children are offered for international adoption.

Écrit par : BBC News | 04/02/2010

Germany suspends adoptions from Nepal

KATHMANDU, Feb 11: Germany has suspended inter-country adoptions from Nepal, barely a week after a report of a group of international legal experts accused Nepal´s adoption system of being subject to widespread abuses.

Though the German Embassy in Kathmandu circulated the decision among diplomatic missions based in Kathmandu on Wednesday, the embassy is yet to inform the government officially.


A diplomatic source who received an email from the German Embassy told myrepublica.com that authorities and agencies concerned in Germany took a decision to this effect in Bonn, Germany on Tuesday. The decision is effective from Wednesday.

The source said that Germany took the decision citing lack of child protection mechanisms in Nepal.

The German decision comes six days after The Hague Conference on Private International Law, an inter-governmental organization based in Hague, called on Nepal to suspend international adoption while the system is being overhauled to ensure children are better protected. It accused Nepal´s adoption system of being marred by widespread abuses while urging Nepal to introduce new legislation to prevent such abuses.

German parents have been adopting 15-20 Nepali children on average annually from Nepal. Altogether 100 children were adopted by German families in a period of six years starting January 2004.

This is the second time Germany has suspended inter-county adoption from Nepal in three years. It had stopped adopting Nepali children in February 2007, the move that was followed by other countries then.

Nepal had faced similar allegations in 2007 and had officially suspended inter-country adoption in May 2007. The government had introduced new rules in 2008 to address the loopholes in the system before deciding to resume adoption in January 2009. But child rights campaigners complain that the abuses continue even after the rules were enforced.

Most Nepali children are adopted by families in Spain, Italy, the US, France, and Germany. Nepal saw a surge in inter-country adoptions after 1999/2000, when the process was standardized and brought under the Ministry for Women, Children, and Social Welfare.

Adoption group discusses Hague report

Meanwhile, the international adoption group based in Kathmandu discussed the report of The Hague Conference on Private International Law at the US Embassy on Wednesday.

Sources told myrepublica.com that they discussed ways to respond to the report that has pointed out abuses of the adoption system and called suspension of the inter-country adoption.

Écrit par : Republica | 11/02/2010