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Corruption au Vietnam. Un nouveau trafic de bébés.
La police a arrêté samedi deux Vietnamiens soupçonnés du trafic de 20 bébés depuis 2007 dans le pays communiste, rapporte lundi 9 novembre le site VietnamNet. Les deux suspects, un homme et une femme arrêtés dans la province de Dong Nai (sud), auraient avoué avoir acheté les bébés à des hôpitaux de la province, de celle de Soc Trang et de Ho Chi Minh-Ville, l'ex-Saïgon. Ils les auraient ensuite revendus à une autre Vietnamienne pour des montants allant de 4 à 12 millions de dongs (150 à 455 euros).
VietnamNet ne précisait pas le sort réservé aux nouveaux nés - adoption internationale ou non. La police de Dong Nai n'était pas joignable pour confirmer l'information lundi soir.
Plusieurs cas de corruption
En septembre, six Vietnamiens impliqués dans un scandale de falsification de documents dans des procédures d'adoption internationales avaient été condamnés à de la prison ferme dans le nord du pays. Dans cette affaire, des dossiers d'abandon avaient été montés de toute pièce pour faire adopter plus de 200 enfants par des étrangers entre 2005 et 2008, avaient indiqué les médias du pays. Des centres vietnamiens travaillant avec la France, l'Italie et les Etats-Unis étaient impliqués. Après ce scandale, révélé il y a plus d'un an, et un rapport accablant des Américains dénonçant en avril 2008 des cas de corruption et, déjà, des rapports frauduleux d'abandons, plusieurs pays avaient remis en question l'adoption au Vietnam. En septembre 2008, les adoptions américaines avaient notamment cessé.
Quelques années plus tôt encore, les risques de trafic avaient déjà entraîné la suspension des procédures d'adoption internationale au Vietnam. Elles avaient repris au compte-gouttes après la signature d'accords bilatéraux censés protéger davantage les enfants.
Source : NOUVELOBS.COM
Vietnamese adoptions face scrutiny
The second report was prepared by UNICEF’s International Social Service (ISS), and is as yet unpublished and in draft form. It has been seen by The Irish Times.
It describes the “complex and dysfunctional nature” of the adoption system in Vietnam, and highlights its main concerns. These include that intercountry adoptions from Vietnam are essentially demand-driven, meaning that the availability of children who are “adoptable” corresponds more to the existence of foreign adopters than to the actual needs of “abandoned” or orphaned children.
It adds that the circumstances under which babies become “adoptable” are invariably unclear and disturbing. It criticises “a remarkably unhealthy relationship between agencies and specific residential facilities”. Receiving countries have been sending out mixed messages, it states, thereby undermining Vietnam’s efforts to sign up to the Hague Convention. It describes the country’s commitment to doing so as “a highly positive perspective”.
The Molisa report does not go into detail about the humanitarian aid aspect of adoption, but identifies as a serious problem the fact that authority for intercountry adoptions has been dispersed to commune level committees.
It also criticises the fact that there is no clear statement in law that international adoption shall be used only as a last resort, once all options for placement within the country have been considered, and that there are no systematic procedures for finding a suitable domestic family. It is also critical of the absence of any requirement that birth parents be given counselling and be clearly informed of the consequences of adoption before giving consent.
Source : Irish Times.
UNICEF queries circumstances of adoptions from Vietnam
THE CIRCUMSTANCES under which children in Vietnam become “adoptable” are “unclear and disturbing”, according to a report from Unicef.
The report is also critical of the Irish adoption agency, Helping Hands, for failing to inform the Irish Adoption Board that a recent increase in fees was in fact an increased demand for “humanitarian aid” from the provincial authority with which it was dealing.
The final report from the UN body, released yesterday, also found that “the level and nature of inter-country adoptions from Vietnam are essentially influenced by foreign demand”.
It said this was illustrated by the fact that the overwhelming majority of adopted children were under one, the age group most sought by prospective adoptive parents.
Referring to the manner in which children became available for adoption, the report said: “Declarations of so-called ‘abandonment’, which is notoriously difficult to investigate, are intriguingly frequent, but with unexplained ‘peaks’ and ‘troughs’. Procedures for verifying the child’s status and for ensuring free and informed consent to adoption are inadequate and inconsistent.”
The report found that the inter-country procedure was influenced by “a remarkably unhealthy relationship that can exist between agencies and specific residential facilities”. Here the question of “aid” generally seemed to be given far more importance than ensuring that foreign adoption was opted for only as a last resort.
The governments of receiving countries also come in for criticism for not committing themselves to applying the basis principles of the Hague Convention on Inter-Country Adoptions in their dealings with Vietnam and for inconsistency in their approaches.
The report acknowledges that Vietnam’s desire for rapid accession to the convention is highly positive. However, it warns that this will require, not only changes in legislation, but a fundamental change in outlook in particular a total divorce between “humanitarian aid” and inter-country adoption. It will also require the development of preventive child welfare measures and functioning child protection systems.
The International Social Service said that the lack of transparency around financial transactions was a source of major concern and demanded immediate action.
Using the Helping Hands agency as an example, it pointed out that last year it informed the Adoption Board that the “adoption fee” for Vietnam had increased by $1,000 to $11,100.
As a result of numerous exchanges, it established that $9,000 of this was in fact “humanitarian aid” and the increase had been requested orally by representatives of the provincial authority that ran the institutions with which Helping Hands dealt.
The reason given was the fall in value of the dollar relative to the Vietnamese dong, but the service noted that in fact the dollar had risen slightly against the dong that year.
The report also expressed grave concern about how “humanitarian aid” was spent and what proportion was spent on institutions rather than child protection.
Meanwhile, a new report from Save the Children reveals that in many countries, four out of five children in “orphanages” still have a living parent.
Poverty is the main reason children end up in institutions, rather than the death of a parent, it adds, saying such children could live with their parents if they were supported in doing so.
Écrit par : Irish Times | 25/11/2009