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« 2010-07 | Page d'accueil | 2010-09 »

26/08/2010

Les enfants ne sont pas des marchandises.

Pavel Astakhov Russie.jpgChildren are not commodity

 

In the wake of not so recent scandals over adopted children’s deaths and violence in the United States, France and Finland, Russian parliament set up a commission on children’s rights, headed by Pavel Astakhov, a top-class lawyer, and children’s rights ombudsman. In a recent interview he spoke about the commission’s activities.

 

Pavel Astakhov is a lawyer with a name whose opinion counts. As the head of this commission he insists that the number of foreign adoption agencies in Russia should be reduced. This statement came ahead of another round of negotiations on a bilateral child adoption agreement between Russia and the USA. The document should outline mechanisms to control living conditions of adopted Russian children in the United States and other countries.

 

“At present some Russian 700,000 children need the care of the state. So the issue of adoption legislation have gained a greater than ever importance. In the last several years we came to realize that we must remedy the situation with orphaned children. We also learnt that we have too few children – 26 million or so. This number in the United States, for one, is 72 million. Demographers say Russia is facing the problem of reduction of children’s population, so by 2025 their number can fall to 22 million or so. Compared with the United States again – that country can boast some 100 million children or more. To whom are we going to give the helm, and how strong and competitive will Russia be then,” asks Pavel Astakhov, ombudsman for the protection of children’s rights.

 

Astakhov says that every Russian child is worth his or her weight in gold. This country cannot afford losing 2,000 children’s lives in car crashes and another 2,000 or so in accidents at home as we had it last year. The problem is not much spoken about, but it must be focused on to find ways out, to speak on the issues of adoption. As things stand now, few orphans find new Russian families. Anything that helps to bring them into families is good, be it guardianship, patronage or adoption. We should offer incentives to adults who want to adopt a child but hesitate not knowing enough about the necessary procedures. As a matter of fact they are rather simple, given that just one precondition is there – the assistance of domestic guardianship bodies. Of course any psychologist would tell the parents adopting a child that they would have problems with him or her. But adults should be able to cope with children‘s problems, seeing their ultimate goal of raising full-fledged citizens with every right they are guaranteed by the state.

 

“This brings us to the theme of adoption by foreigners,” said Pavel Astakhov. “In the past 16 years Americans, for example, have been very active adopters. They took children from Vietnam, China, Ethiopia, and other countries. Many prefer Russian children and are ready to stay on long waiting lists, because they find them especially gifted and talented thanks to their roots. Americans have already adopted more than 60,000 Russian children. As a lawyer, I refuse to view this as a positive trend,” said Pavel Astakhov, “as we still have no relevant inter-governmental agreement, even though there’s no selling any commodity to the United States without a contract. Children are no commodities but we still allow taking them out without any contract or obligations. And now we have 17 children who died of parent cruelty there. And if it were not for the situation with Artyom Saveliev whom his new American “mummy” put on a plane as a sack of potatoes with a one-way ticket and a note “Take him back!” we still would not have addressed adoption legislation,” said Pavel Astakhov.

 

Now that this issue is being handled, and Russia’s stance on it is quite tough. Without such an agreement we would not let foreigners take children out of Russia. We do have a law that allows foreigners to adopt Russian children, but only if a child has not been adopted by Russian citizens. There are agencies here who try to circumvent this provision by hook or by crook to get their fat profits. This is another problem we have to solve. But, Pavel Astakhov adds, he is against business on children with no guarantees and regular reports about their well-being. We will sign relevant agreements with the United States, France, Germany, Finland and Spain similar to the only one we have with Italy. Ireland had recently announced it would not adopt Russian children any longer. This does not hurt us,” Pavel Astakhov said, adding that he is confident that it would not take too long before motherless Russian children would be adopted by Russian families.


Voir aussi la vidéo sur "The Voice of Russia".

 

Documents 'fudged' because of concerns about Russian response

E-mails between adoption workers involved with the case of a Russian boy who was sent back to his homeland alone by a former Shelbyville woman appear to indicate that reports about the placement of the child to Russian officials may have been "fudged."
Times Gazette. 22 août 2010.

08:13 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Adoption internationale | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : russie | |  del.icio.us

25/08/2010

La seule de ma race, par Nathalie Daysse, née sous X.

Nathalie Daysse, nee sous X. Droit à connaitre ses originesLe droit à connaître ses origines

 

Nathalie Daysse était le 20 août 2010 à l'Office du tourisme de La Gacilly pour dédicacer son autobiographie, La seule de ma race. Enfant abandonnée et adoptée à 10 jours, elle raconte ses interrogations et son mal de vivre. Son manque, c'est de ne pas connaître ses origines. « Tout l'amour des parents adoptifs n'empêche de se sentir comme un électron libre », d'être un maillon hors de toute chaîne. À l'âge de 38 ans, mère de famille, elle perd sa mère adoptive. Elle reprend sa quête et finit par retrouver sa mère biologique. Le fil de son histoire se renoue.

 

Ce livre émouvant est aussi un plaidoyer. « Les enfants nés sous X sont 400 000 en France. Chacun devrait avoir le droit, s'il le souhaite, à sa majorité, de connaître sa filiation. Même sans le consentement des parents biologiques ». Elle remet en cause « la procédure de l'accouchement sous X et le verrouillage de l'administration ».

 

Elle défend ainsi les intérêts des enfants, et de leurs descendants avec leur histoire, et leur hérédité génétique, alors que sont aujourd'hui davantage pris en compte les intérêts des géniteurs et des parents adoptifs. Sa mère biologique, qui a rédigé la postface, comprend la souffrance de sa fille, mais défend le secret.

 

La seule de ma race, Éditions Le Toucan en librairie, à la Fnac et sur le site Amazone


Source: Ouest France.

23/08/2010

Des familles allemandes déchirées par les adoptions forcées pendant la guerre froide recherchent encore des réponses - et leurs parents perdus.

Katrin Behr was separated from her mother as a child. Photograph: Christian Jungeblodt for the Guardian The legacy of forced adoptions
German families torn apart by forced adoptions during the cold war are still looking for answers – and their lost relatives

 

It took exactly four minutes to steal Andreas Laake's baby son – that was the length of the court hearing that swept away his paternity rights. Some 26 years later Laake can still recall every detail of the trial: his aching wrists cuffed behind his back; the musty smell of the courtroom; the steely voice of the young female judge. Then there were the vague words of the social worker who said that after his attempted escape from the German Democratic Republic: "we do not believe Mr Laake has the ability to bring up his son for the purpose of socialism".

 

Laake was not even allowed to defend himself. All he said in court were four words: "I do not agree." Several weeks later his son Marco was adopted by people who were considered, in ideological terms, much more reliable parents. "Since then, I've spent half a lifetime searching for him," says Laake.

 

It took a matter of minutes for Katrin Behr to be separated from her family too. It was a cold winter morning in 1972 when three men in long, dark coats knocked on the door to arrest her mother. Behr was four-and-a-half years old at the time, and can still remember the panic in her mother's voice as she urged her daughter to get dressed quickly. But Katrin Behr was left behind. The last words she heard were, "Be brave. I'll be back tonight," before her mother was spirited off to a socialist boot camp. It would be 19 years until they saw each other again. After short stopovers in various foster homes, Behr was adopted by a strict woman, a secretary of the Socialist party. She tried to adapt as best she could. "I did what I was told," Behr says. "As a little girl I really thought that that was the best way to avoid trouble."

 

Stealing children was one way the German Democratic Republic muzzled its people – Behr and Laake belong to an estimated 1,000 families torn apart by the socialist authorities. Forced adoptions were a tool that the regime "could impose on virtually anyone who was considered suspicious", Behr says; all it took to be judged a bad parent was to infringe on vague "socialist guidelines". In Behr's case, her mother, a single parent, was arrested after she had lost her job and decided to stay at home to care for her children – a major transgression in the eyes of a state that believed in compulsory labour.

 

In her new family, Behr always felt "like a second-class daughter", she says, "a Cinderella who had to clean the house and care for my younger adoptive brother while my adoptive mother was at work". She was told repeatedly that she had been put up for adoption because her natural mother did not love her. "I desperately tried to cling to a positive image of her," Behr says, "but any abandoned child would start to doubt that love after 19 years." She was granted limited access to her adoption file following reunification, and learned that her mother had never had a chance to get her daughter back. She also found out that her mother had spent several years in prison. Still, it took Behr a whole year to get in touch with her. "I hesitated," she says, "because I was afraid that the negative comments about her would be proved right."

 

When Behr finally met her natural mother, she says she was obsessed with the idea that everyone in her extended family would get along: she therefore arranged for her natural and adoptive mother to meet. This was a disaster. Behr had to separate the women when they literally went for each other's throat: "You stole my child, you communist bitch!" Behr's natural mother shouted. Today Behr is only in touch very occasionally with both women.

 

Three years ago, Behr set up a support group for the victims of forced adoptions, and since then the 43-year-old has been contacted by hundreds of people still searching for their children, parents or siblings. The 20th anniversary of reunification this October has prompted a flood of interest: a number of films on the topic have come out in Germany, and have been greeted with huge surprise by the public – they have also prompted victims to talk about their cases publicly for the first time. Like Laake, most of them feel betrayed twice over. The GDR destroyed their families, and the reunified German state did nothing to redress the injustice.

 

Walking through the dismal Leipzig suburbs feels like being transported back 20 years: there are potholes, weeds growing through the tarmac, dozens of uniform grey apartment blocks. Laake, a slim, frail man of 50, lives in a ground-floor flat in one of these blocks. Over the years, he has tried everything to find his son. He has posted notices on the internet. He has sent letters to politicians. He has recruited lawyers and private investigators. And he has continually been reminded that, while times and political systems change, his situation has not.

 

He is eager to tell his story, he says, despite the intimidation he has experienced. Laake and his family have been attacked by a man in the street; his car has been damaged twice; someone broke into his cellar; the only photo of his son as a baby has disappeared. But Laake says he is not afraid. "I am certainly not going to be paranoid. Not after all these years."

 

Laake's career as an "enemy of the socialist state" was never political. It started as a harmless teenage rebellion. He refused to join the youth organisation of the Socialist party, and at school in the 1970s he often wore a faux stetson and a black denim suit he'd made himself. This provocatively "western" outfit made him a target for his teachers' criticism. "But my mother always supported me," says Laake. "Our family agreed on the importance of personal freedom. As long as I can remember I wanted to get out of East Germany."

 

Early marriages were common in the GDR and so, at 19, Laake proposed to his childhood friend, Ilona, who came to share his dream of life on the other side of the iron curtain. Three years into their marriage, when she was expecting a baby, they decided to flee. Their idea was to cross the Baltic sea overnight in an inflatable rubber boat. It was hazardous: the beach became a prohibited zone after dusk, closely monitored by military police. "But when you are on the run, you stop thinking," says Laake. "You are in a sort of survival mode. It's all about: get on the water. Cower down in the dinghy so you're not shot. Then paddle for your life." They did not even make it to the water. "You can't describe the pressure you feel when there are five Kalashnikovs pointing at you."
Andreas Laake Andreas Laake is still searching for his son, who was adopted as a baby. Photograph: Eva-Helen Thoele

 

As an ex-prisoner and attempted refugee, Laake is officially acknowledged as a victim of political injustice, and he has even been granted a small monthly pension by the German government. But as a betrayed father, there are no documents proving his case. The GDR authorities effectively covered their tracks. Laake never received any official papers about his trial and because of data privacy laws his son's adoption file is closed to him for 50 years. The only person who has limited access to the file – other than the case officers – is Marco himself. And there's no way of knowing if he's ever even been told that he's adopted.

 

With no access to the details of his case, Laake has had to commit everything he can to memory. The words of the security agent who beat him during questioning. The document he signed to spare his pregnant wife imprisonment, confessing that he alone was responsible for the escape. The Hannibal-Lecter-style cage they built inside a cell, where, for several weeks – as a special punishment – he was kept in solitary confinement. He was in prison for six-and-a-half years altogether.

 

Marco was born and put up for adoption while Laake was under arrest; his wife had buckled under the massive pressure to give their child up. "She was only 21 years old, she was afraid, they threatened to make her life hell, they mentally broke her." Laake knows that she had no real chance to prevent the forced adoption, but the couple nevertheless fell out over the loss, and are now divorced. "In the end I simply couldn't forgive her," he says.

 

While telling his story Laake shows me a number of photographs of Marco: in a rowing boat, aged eight, and as a teenager at a party. They were given to him just a few months ago, as a result of his persistent campaign, by a social worker who is apparently in contact with Marco's adoptive family. She also read out a short letter, supposedly from Marco, now 26, who said that he has a good life and does not wish to get to know his natural father. Laake was not allowed to see the letter himself, for reasons of data protection. "His language sounded clumsy and strangely impersonal," he says. "As if someone had desperately tried to put himself into Marco's position and then made the whole thing up."

 

Laake knows that "there is no law that could turn around my situation". When the reunification treaty was signed in 1990 the new German state had not distinguished between legal and illegal adoptions, so every case today is dealt with according to the old West German law, which prohibits natural parents from finding out about children they voluntarily gave up. The builders of the new German state 20 years ago either forgot to classify "adoptions against the will of the parents" as a violation of human rights or, as the historian and GDR expert Uwe Hillmer suggests, they simply were not interested. "Even members of the Kohl government admitted internally: forget about the past," says Hillmer. Many of the Socialist administration's files were destroyed during the last days of the GDR, and a former officer of the Stasi, the East German security service, once told Hillmer: "You haven't got the slightest idea about the real extent of injustice, and you will never find out what really happened."

 

That Stasi officer might well be right, but reading through Behr's victim support website gives some sense of the scale of what went on. Behr has collected more than 300 cases of alleged forced adoption so far, and she is trying to help more than 200 people to find family members. There are 93 unsettled cases regarding the deaths of newborn babies: Behr has documented the stories of mothers who were still lying in the delivery room when they were told that their babies had died – but swear they heard their child crying. They were not allowed to see their baby's corpse. One mother visited the grave of her twin daughters for more than 25 years before seeing two young women tell the story of their adoption on TV. They were her daughters. It's unclear why this cruel practice took place; most of the people involved in the forced adoptions have refused to talk. Hillmer says there are suspicions that Socialist party officials who could not have children "ordered" newborns from cooperative gynaecologists, although this has only been proved in one case so far.

 

Behr's objective is to make the victims' voices heard. She gives lectures across Germany about forced adoption. "Many victims find themselves in the humiliating position that no one even believes them, and the strangeness of their cases doesn't make it any easier," she says. Most of them suffer from depression, and some question their own memories, as Behr has herself. The separation from her natural mother destroyed her self-esteem and she suspects she will never fully recover.

 

Laake refuses to accept that the data protection law is the only reason he is prevented from contacting Marco; he suspects that Marco's adoptive parents don't want their son to know the circumstances of his adoption. "If they told him," he says, "it could destroy their family." He keeps turning questions over in his mind: what if Marco's clumsy letter was written by someone else? What if old Stasi networks are still operating in Leipzig? What if Marco's adoptive parents are former party officials trying to hide their past?

Behr is helping Laake with his investigation, and worries about his safety. Until recently, she didn't believe the rumours about Stasi networks being operational, but "looking at Laake's case with all its dodgy incidents made me change my mind", she says. After Laake was attacked in the street, police advised him to search for a new flat for his own safety.

 

There is another reason that Behr is concerned about Laake. She says that many victims of forced adoption build up high hopes that things will change for the better once they find their natural family. "They focus on a happy ending that is never going to happen." Behr has helped more than 100 people to find their lost family members so far, but most cases end like her own: there is an initial sense of relief, followed by disappointment that the parent or child in question has become a complete stranger.

 

Laake knows that there may be no happy ending for him, that the problem of East Germany's lost children "is probably not solvable". Nevertheless he will carry on searching for Marco. He has started to call the adoption office twice a week, and he is also planning a sit-down strike outside the office, "with a sign around my neck: give me back my son!" He says he doesn't expect anything from contact with Marco. "I could even understand if he didn't wish to meet me." But he wants to hear that for himself. Laake is tired of all the threats and delays. "All I want is certainty. That's the minimum a father can expect."


Source : guardian.co.uk, Sunday 22 August 2010.

11:55 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Origine - Identité | Lien permanent | Commentaires (1) | Tags : allemagne, adoptions forcées | |  del.icio.us

18/08/2010

Consommation de drogues : comment atténuer les risques chez les mauvais garçons

Udem Nouvelles Univ Montreal.jpg
Les garçons agressifs et hyperactifs peu encadrés par leurs parents sont plus susceptibles de se lier d'amitié avec des pairs au comportement déviant et à devenir de forts consommateurs de drogues à l'adolescence, selon les résultats d'une nouvelle étude publiés dans la revue Addictive Behaviors.

 

Pourtant, la recherche menée par des scientifiques de l'Université de Montréal et du CHU de Sainte-Justine révèle que les « mauvais garçons » peuvent être protégés du risque de toxicomanie à l'adolescence s'ils sont étroitement encadrés par leurs parents et se lient d'amitié avec des garçons au comportement plus sage pendant l'enfance.

 

La surveillance des parents exerce un effet protecteur sur les garçons difficiles et réduit la probabilité qu'ils se lient d'amitié avec des homologues au comportement déviant, selon l'auteur principal de cette étude, Jean-Sébastien Fallu, professeur de psychoéducation à l'Université de Montréal et scientifique au Groupe de recherche sur les environnements scolaires. « Les garçons au comportement perturbateur sont plus enclins à avoir des comportements agressifs et impulsifs. Ces adolescents pourraient avoir besoin que leurs parents leur imposent davantage de limites qu'à ceux qui possèdent de solides mécanismes de contrôle interne. »

 

Le coauteur de cette recherche, Richard Tremblay, professeur de pédiatrie, de psychiatrie et de psychologie à l'Université de Montréal et chercheur CHU Sainte-Justine, explique que les enfants agressifs sont plus susceptibles de verser dans la consommation abusive de drogues que leurs homologues non agressifs et que ce risque augmente sensiblement s'ils se lient d'amitié avec des enfants au comportement déviant. « Les pairs au comportement déviant se tiennent souvent ensemble et s'influencent mutuellement », explique le Dr Tremblay, qui est également directeur fondateur du Centre d'excellence pour le développement des jeunes enfants de Montréal.

 

Cette étude est basée sur des données provenant d'une enquête de longue durée ayant suivi des enfants de milieux socioéconomiques défavorisés, de la maternelle jusqu'à l'adolescence. « Notre recherche a aussi montré que les enfants au comportement perturbateur qui sont étroitement encadrés par leurs parents, mais présentant des troubles de l'attachement, sont aussi de forts consommateurs de drogues », indique le Dr Tremblay.

 

Inversement, explique Jean-Sébastien Fallu, « Les garçons au comportement perturbateur bien surveillés sont plus susceptibles de se lier d'amitié avec des enfants au comportement mieux adapté. Dans ce cas, ils pourraient bénéficier d'une influence positive en matière de socialisation ou de conformité aux normes sociales largement acceptées. »


Partenaires de recherche

Cette étude a été financée par le Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines du Canada, le Programme national de recherche et de développement en matière de santé et le Fonds de recherche sur la société et la culture.

 

À propos de l'étude

L'article « Preventing disruptive boys from becoming heavy substance users during adolescence: A longitudinal study of familial and peer-related protective factors », paru dans la revue Addictive Behaviors, est signé Jean-Sébastien Fallu, Michel Janosz, Frédéric Nault-Brière, Ariane Descheneaux, Frank Vitaro et Richard E. Tremblay de l'Université de Montréal.

 


Source : Université de Montréal Nouvelles | 17 août 2010.

 

15:13 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Etude - Recherche | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | |  del.icio.us

17/08/2010

Les enfants perdus de Corée

Fabriquee en Coree.jpg

Korea's Lost Children

Korea's Lost Children, un documentaire de la BBC diffusé le 6 août 2010.


«Le documentaire explore les points de vue des personnes qui ont été personnellement touchées par l'adoption internationale.» Ellen Otzen, productrice de BBC World Service.


Chaque année, environ 1 000 enfants sud-coréens sont donnés en adoption aux pays occidentaux. Le programme d'adoption internationale a commencé dans les années 1950 comme réponse du gouvernement appauvri face aux masses d'orphelins métis de la guerre de la Corée.


Tout compte fait, environ 200 000 enfants coréens ont été adoptés à l'étranger au cours des 60 dernières années. Environ 300 d'entre eux sont depuis retournés vivre en Corée - et beaucoup sont maintenant impliqués dans la tentative pour modifier les lois sur l'adoption.


Dans ce programme, la journaliste de la BBC, Ellen Otzen, rencontre Jane Jeong Trenka et Suki Leith, qui ont été adoptées par des familles américaines, afin d'explorer l'impact que l'adoption étrangère a eu sur elles.


Les gouvernements successifs se sont engagés à mettre fin à la pratique de l'adoption transnationale. La Corée du Sud est aujourd'hui l'un des pays les plus développés du monde, et a un des taux de natalité les plus faibles dans le monde, alors pourquoi des enfants coréens sont toujours renvoyés?



Aujourd'hui, 89% des enfants coréens envoyés à l'étranger pour l'adoption sont nés de mères célibataires, qui disent qu'elles sont abordées par des agences privées d'adoption pendant leur grossesse qui les poussent à donner leurs enfants en adoption.


L'un des principaux acteurs, Holt International Adoption Agency, a souvent été critiqué par les adoptés coréens pour le non-respect des droits des mères célibataires et la mise en place d'un système qui rend possible «la vente de bébés coréens par correspondance».


Le chef de l'Agence, Molly Holt, affirme que l'objectif principal de l'organisation est tout simplement de donner aux bébés coréens «non désirés», «une famille permanente et aimante permanente et aimante.»


Les adoptés disent qu'il est temps que le gouvernement coréen fassent des lois qui favorisent la préservation de la famille au lieu de l'adoption internationale.



Source : Fabriquée en Corée.

 

 

 

14/08/2010

En Belgique-du-Nord, les nourrissons flamands peuvent aussi aller en internat.

baby internaat in vl.jpgUn "internat" pour bébé et enfants en bas âge ouvrira ses portes ce lundi à Waregem, rapporte le Standaard sur son site internet. Deux bébés y sont déjà inscrits. Ils passeront 4 nuits par semaine loin de leurs parents. Il reste encore 14 places vacantes. Avis aux parents submergés …

L'accueil de nuit des jeunes enfants n'est pas nouveau en Belgique, mais c'est la première fois qu'une crèche offre cette possibilité tout au long de la semaine. Les parents pourront y laisser leurs enfants du dimanche soir au vendredi soir, exactement comme avec un internat pour enfants et adolescents. "Deux enfants seront accueillis dès la semaine prochaine", indique Gretel Annemans, à l'origine de cette initiative. "Tous les deux resteront ici quatre nuits par semaine".

 

Car les grands-parents ne sont plus là pour aider...


Elle explique que "de nombreux parents peuvent beaucoup moins compter sur les grands-parents que par le passé", étant donné que ces derniers sont encore eux-mêmes souvent au travail. Il arrive aussi fréquemment que les grands-parents habitent trop loin. Il semblerait donc que certains parents préfèrent dormir sur leurs deux oreilles pour être en forme au travail plutôt que de s’occuper eux-mêmes de leur petit bébé, au risque de ne pas fermer l’œil de la nuit.
Cette crèche, baptisée Ennès, a demandé une attestation auprès de l'office flamande de l'enfance, Kind en Gezin, mais le document ne peut être délivré qu'après ouverture et visite d'inspecteurs. Pour l'accueil de nuit, des précautions particulières doivent être prises, notamment en matière de prévention des incendies.

 

Selon le professeur émérite Jean-Yves Hayez, de l’UCL : "L’enfant comprendra..."

 

“Il faut distinguer les parents qui placent leur enfant par nécessité et ceux qui le font par confort. Dans certaines situations (travail, déplacement), mieux vaut une structure stable, avec des professionnels. Il faut parler au nourrisson, lui expliquer. Même s’il ne comprend pas tout, il finira par comprendre.”
“ En revanche ”, poursuit le professeur, “ si les parents placent régulièrement l’enfant pour leur confort personnel, lors de mini-trips par exemple, il finira par comprendre. Avec le risque que, plus tard, il se referme sur lui-même et devienne égocentrique ”.
Il y a risque de développer des problèmes psycho-affectifs.

 

Source : RTL Info.

 

 

Ook baby's kunnen nu op 'internaat'

 

BRUSSEL - U wil uw baby laten overnachten op de kinderopvang, net zoals in een internaat? Geen probleem bij kinderopvang Ennès in Waregem, die maandag opent. 'Samen met de ouders voor hun kind zorgen', zo noemt de uitbaatster het zelf.
'Mogelijkheid tot internaatsformule, voltijds of deeltijds', staat er op de website van Ennès, een nieuw kinderopvanginitiatief in Waregem. Nachtopvang in kinderdagverblijven is op zich niet nieuw, maar het is voor het eerst dat een kinderverzorgster zich richt op nachtopvang voor een hele week. Ouders kunnen er hun baby's en peuters kwijt tussen zondagavond en vrijdagavond.
'Er komen volgende week al twee kindjes op internaat', vertelt initiatiefneemster Gretel Annemans (42). 'Allebei blijven ze hier vier nachten per week. Omdat ik de prijs afhankelijk maak van het inkomen van de ouders, kunnen ook gezinnen uit de lagere sociale klassen hier terecht.'

 

Twee slaapkamers

 

Annemans werkte voordien in de bijzondere jeugdzorg en merkte daar dat er veel vraag is naar nachtopvang voor baby's en peuters. 'Maar ik richt me uitdrukkelijk niet alleen op de bijzondere jeugdzorg: iedereen is hier welkom', zegt ze. 'Ouders kunnen veel minder dan vroeger rekenen op oma en opa die even bijspringen, want die zijn vaak zelf nog aan het werk. Ook wonen veel ouders niet meer zo dicht bij familieleden.'
Elk kind krijgt zijn eigen bedje, verdeeld over twee slaapkamers. 'Er is officieel plaats voor dertien kinderen, maar ik zal me beperken tot acht of negen kindjes in de dagopvang en vier of vijf kindjes in de nachtopvang.'
Rookdetector
Ennès heeft bij Kind & Gezin een aanvraag ingediend voor een attest van toezicht, maar dat kan pas toegekend worden als de opvang open is en er bezoek is geweest van inspecteurs. 'Kinderopvangcentra die nachtopvang aanbieden, moeten speciale maatregelen nemen voor de brandveiligheid', zegt woordvoerder Ronny Machiels. 'Er moeten rookdetectors hangen en er moeten voldoende nooduitgangen zijn. Centra met nachtopvang moeten ook een aparte slaapruimte hebben. De kinderen mogen dus niet in de leefruimte zelf slapen.'
Een internaat voor kleuters bestaat in Vlaanderen al enkele jaren, bijvoorbeeld in Mechelen. Maar nachtopvangplaatsen voor baby's en peuters waren totnogtoe gericht op occasionele opvang. Een van die 'kinderhotels' is Deborah Centre in Ravels. 'Wij liggen tegenover een feestzaal en krijgen vooral kinderen van ouders die daar naar een feestje gaan', zegt Dorothea Dekkers van Deborah Centre. 'Dat gebeurt vooral in het weekend en tijdens de vakanties. Maar zo vaak komt het niet voor, want er wonen hier ook veel grootouders in de buurt.'

 

Bron : Standaard.

 

 

Pas d'internat pour nourrissons en Belgique francophone

 

"Ce type d'institutions n'existe pas en Belgique francophone et aucun projet n'envisage pour l'instant d'en créer une", souligne Marie-Christine Mauroy, médecin coordonnateur de l'ONE.

 

L'internat pour nourrissons à Waregem choque la Ligue flamande des familles
Alors qu'un "internat" pour bébés et enfants en bas âge ouvrira ses portes lundi à Waregem, l'Office de la naissance et de l'enfance (ONE) a indiqué vendredi à l'agence Belga qu'aucune institution de ce genre n'existait en Belgiquefrancophone.

 

"Ce type d'institutions n'existe pas en Belgique francophone et aucun projet n'envisage pour l'instant d'en créer une", souligne Marie-Christine Mauroy, médecin coordonnateur de l'ONE.

 

"Priver un enfant en bas âge de ses parents pendant plusieurs jours pourrait le traumatiser", explique Marie-Christine Mauroy. En effet, il a été prouvé que l'enfant, qui n'établit pas un lien d'attachement dit "secure" avec un nombre réduit de personnes, pourrait éprouver, à l'avenir, des problèmes d'ordre psycho-affectif.
Cependant, Marie-Christine Mauroy préfère ne pas juger trop vite négativement l'internat flamand baptisé Ennès. "Tout peut très bien se passer si des mesures sont mises en place pour assurer la stabilité affective de l'enfant, par exemple, faire en sorte qu'un bébé soit toujours gardé par la même puéricultrice."

 

S'il n'y a aucun internat pour nourrissons en Belgique francophone, il existe, par contre, des crèches à horaires plus larges qui ouvrent très tôt le matin et ferment plus tard.
Il existe également des crèches qui fonctionnent 24h/24 comme la crèche "Les Bouts d'Choux" à Namur. Une crèche semblable est actuellement en construction près du centre hospitalier Peltzer-la-Tourelle à Verviers.

 

 

Internat pour bébés - Ils n'ont toujours rien compris !!!

08:21 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Communiqué | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : flandre, famille, bébé, internat | |  del.icio.us

11/08/2010

Un Allemand, Arun Dohle, cherche l'aide de la Cour Suprême pour localiser sa mère biologique indienne

Arun Dohle comes back for motherGerman seeks Supreme Court help in locating biological Indian mother.
Adopted German continues search for Indian roots.

 


New Delhi:  Thirty five years after he was adopted by a German couple, the Supreme Court on Tuesday agreed to examine the plea of a man claiming to be the offspring of the brother of a union minister seeking a direction to help him locate his biological mother.

 

A Bench of Justices Markandeya Katju and T S Thakur initially expressed reluctance to pass any direction but later adjourned the matter till Thursday after making some observations.

 

According to the petitioner Arun Dohle, he was born on July 31, 1973, at Sassoon Hospital in Pune. A German couple, Michael and Gertrude Dohle, adopted him four weeks later from the Kusumbai Motichand Mahila Seva Gram (KMMSG) after his mother reportedly abandoned him.

 

He settled in Germany but later came back to India to locate his biological mother.

 

Arun says he was actually kidnapped from his mother and given away for adoption to a German family. He claims to be in fact the son of the brother of a powerful NCP leader in the UPA cabinet.

 

The lanky German national said he suspected the institution had kidnapped him as a baby and separated him from his mother.

 

He suspects that the abandonment theory was a ploy to facilitate his adoption.

 

Arun, through counsel Senthil Jagadeesan in the apex court, alleged that for the past eight years he has been rebuffed by Kusumbai Motichand Mahila Seva Gram, an institution for destitute women where his mother was last known to reside. The Bombay police too refused to help him in tracing his biological mother, he alleged.

 

The Bombay High Court had earlier in 2005 dismissed his plea, following which he appealed in the apex court. In 2005, the apex court had asked the Maharashtra Director General of Police to place in a sealed cover a report on Arun's biological connection.

 

However, when the matter came up today for hearing the sealed letter could not be traced in the files of the registry, forcing the Bench to adjourn the matter till Thursday.

 

But during the arguments, Justice Katju said the Supreme Court cannot convert itself into Parliament and legislate as otherwise the latter too would start deciding judicial matters.

 

"The Supreme Court cannot convert itself into Parliament. Otherwise, let Parliament be closed and let this court start legislating. If we start legislating, tomorrow Parliament would also start deciding cases saying courts are taking 20-30 years to decide litigations," the Bench said.

 

The Bench made the remarks when counsel for Arun argued that the authorities were bound to disclose the identity of his biological mother and cited a 1984 ruling of the apex court in the Laxmikant Pandey case.


Sources : Press Trust of India | 10 août 2010 - Daily News & Analysis | 11 août 2010

 

- Je ne serai pas satisfait tant que je n'ai pas trouvé ma mère de naissance
I won’t be satisfied till I find my birth mother’ Arun Dohle 
DNA India. 18 août 2010.

 

- La recherche de la vérité pour Arun
Le Charabia de Moushette. 13.08.2010.

 

- India. National Consultation on Countering Challenges in Adoption: Combating Child Trafficking.
India: 10 & 11.01.2009 Nationale consultatie over adoptie en trafficking van children.
Better Care Network.



- L'origine en héritage.
Sylvia Nabinger, psychothérapeute. Mai 2008.

07/08/2010

Les Etats-Unis suspendent les adoptions d'enfants abandonnés du Népal

Adoption Alert Nepal.jpgUS suspends adoption of abandoned children in Nepal over concerns of fraudulent paperwork


NEW YORK — The U.S. government on Friday suspended the adoption of abandoned children from Nepal because of concerns about unreliable and fabricated documents.



The State Department said the suspension would take effect immediately, although it will continue to consider adoption applications already in the pipeline on a case-by-case basis. About 80 such cases are pending.



More than 60 Nepalese children were adopted by Americans in 2006. The number dropped to six last year as U.S. officials intensified warnings about possible problems.



The State Department acted after finding numerous cases where Nepalese children's birth certificates were falsified and orphanage officials refused to assist efforts to confirm information.



Because of the unreliable documents and "the general situation of noncooperation with and even active hindrance of investigations," U.S. authorities can no longer accurately determine whether a child qualifies as an orphan, the State Department said.



It cited one case where the birth parents were actively searching for a child who had been matched with an American family for adoption.



Regarding the pending cases, the State Department said they would be approved only if supported by reliable evidence.



"Every effort will be made to process their cases as expeditiously as possible with the best interests of children in mind," it said.



U.S. officials said the duration of the suspension would depend on the pace with which Nepal's government implements more rigorous oversight of adoptions. One step in this direction would be to ratify the Hague Convention, with sets standards for international adoptions.



According to the State Department, numerous other countries — including Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy and Britain — have recently suspended adoptions from Nepal based on similar concerns.



Chuck Johnson, head of the private National Council for Adoption, expressed dismay at the suspension, saying it would consign many Nepalese orphans to longer stays in institutions.



"It's a sad day for us children's advocates," he said. "When you suspend adoptions due to concerns of abuse, you're also preventing the adoption of legal and legitimate orphans. ... There will be suffering, profound psychological and physical effects."



Source: Washington Examiner.

--
Liste des pays qui ont suspendus les adoptions avec le Népal: Allemagne, Belgique, Canada, Danemark, Espagne, France, Grande-Bretagne, Israël,Ityalie, Norvège, Suède, Suisse. En gros, les américains étaient les seuls à continuer, comme en Haïti.
Les Etats-Unis est le seul pays à continuer d'y envoyer des dossiers pour de nouvelles adoptions, alors qu'il y a eu des abus épouvantables
.

 

06/08/2010

Des adultes adoptés transnationalement s'expriment.

Australian Journal of Adoption.jpgTransnationally Adopted Adults Speak Out


The following book review appeared in the Australian Journal of Adoption, Vol 2, No 2 (2010).  This article is protected by copyright. It may be reproduced for non-profit, educational purposes, providing that it is reproduced in its entirety, without alteration.

 

Outsiders Within:
Writing on Transracial Adoption
Edited by Jane Jeong Trenka, Julia Chinyere Oparah and Sun Yung Shin
South End Press, 2006
by Evelyn Robinson, MA, Dip Ed, BSW

 

Outsiders Within makes powerful and fascinating reading. It contains thirty chapters written by thirty different authors. Twenty-five of them identify as adults who were transracially adopted as children. Most were raised in the United States, but six grew up in Europe and four in Australia. Their stories are sometimes tragic, sometimes uplifting, but always interesting. The other contributors have either a personal experience with or a personal interest in transracial adoption. The book also contains art work and poetry. Outsiders Within contains many powerful words and ideas. I have selected some of them to support my comments.

Outsiders Within is an American book and is professionally produced and presented. My only complaint about the book is that I am disturbed by the fact that American writers used to understand the correct use of ‘practise’ vs ‘practice’ and ‘dependent’ vs ‘dependant’ (as you will see if you read work published by American writers some years ago), but now, much to my frustration, many of them have abandoned correct usage.

I highly recommend this book to anyone who has an interest in adoption and especially in transracial adoption. It reinforced many of my long-held views about transracial adoption, which encompasses adoption of children from one country to another and from one racial group to another within the same country. As Ellen Barry, Nobel Peace Prize nominee in 2005, writes: children removed from their own communities and placed in white adoptive homes face lifelong emotional repercussions (p62).

 

The value of personal narratives

 

Transracially adopted adults are described in the book as an untapped source of knowledge (p90) and…expert documenters of their own lives (p262). Much of the research into transracial adoption in the past has represented the views of adoptive parents about how well-adjusted their children were. However, many of the contributors point out that…Repressing grief does not make one “well-adjusted” (p172). It is impossible to judge the lifelong outcomes for adopted people by basing research on children. The editors explain in the introduction that it is often not until transracially adopted people reach middle age that they…reach a point where [they] can acknowledge and heal from the pain of isolation and alienation (p1).

Much of the research into outcomes for transracially adopted people has measured them against members of the society into which they have been adopted and explored how they deviate from the norm (ie the dominant culture). The assumption in such research is that it is healthy for the adopted person to assimilate and that lack of assimilation of the dominant culture represents a failure on their part. The authors in this book stress the importance of recognising the value of the personal narratives of those who were adopted transracially and bemoan the fact that their experience is too often devalued and considered inferior to the opinions of supposed experts.

As John Raible, who is a transracial adoptee and an adoptive father, states: …the literature on transracial adoption will remain incomplete and inadequate until the voices of mature adoptees and family members are included (p182). In order to guide current and future policy and practice, it is vital that we understand what life has been like for mature adults who were transracially adopted as children and how they feel about the impact of adoption separation in their lives.

The political perspective

Some contributors examine transracial adoption from a political standpoint. One points out that…Western economic, military, and empire-building forces that have caused serious and permanent disruptions to families in the Third World are notably absent in many adoption narratives (p261). Not for the first time, intercountry adoption is compared to slavery…Both practices are driven by insatiable consumer demand (p143). Also it is made clear that the mothers who lose their children from ‘Third World’ to ‘First World’ countries are never given a voice. Intercountry adoption is described as…a poverty policy…[which]…brutally punishes women - and their children - for being poor by taking their children away (p86).

Some contributors focus on the over-representation of ‘children of colour’ in the care system, the dangers of terminating parental rights and the push to hasten adoptions. They also point out the dangers in the ‘colour-blind’ approach to transracial adoption. They describe the long term outcomes for the communities who are losing their children and for the children themselves:…children of color who are placed with white adoptive parents also face the real, and potentially devastating, impact of losing their cultural and racial identity (p62).

 

Adoption and loss

 

Many of the contributors describe the profound and complex losses that come with being adopted into a different racial and cultural group from the one into which they were born and their frustration at being pressured to feel grateful for having suffered that loss. “Adoption is like having all of your birth family die and getting a replacement family and being told by society how lucky you are that all of your family is dead but we gave you a new one” (p210). Mark Hagland writes …The gap between one’s self-definition and the identity attributed to one by others has been at the heart of what I call my “cognitive dissonance” as a Korean adoptee (p41).

There are stories of attempted suicide, substance abuse, self-harm, isolation and depression. Beth Kyong Lo advises approaching these issues from a loss and grief perspective (p174). Some of the contributors describe the trials they have faced, while others also describe the efforts they have made to connect with their culture of origin and manage their losses. The narratives centre to a large extent around loss, alienation, sadness, separation, racism, cultural dislocation, second-hand ancestry, patronising attitudes and…the burden of feeling grateful (p274). Sandra White Hawk stresses that…Quality of life is not solely determined by money and possessions. Quality of life is family and sense of belonging (p300). Indigo Williams Willing describes one transracially adopted woman:…Compounding her own sense of difference was that she felt pressured to be “grateful” for being adopted and believed that this silenced her sense of grief and loss (p263).

There is also mention of the on-going effects on the children and grandchildren of those who were transracially adopted and the…intergenerational trauma…a result of the systematic removal of our children (p299).

 

Adoption and recovery

 

The book also contains stories of healing. The editors mention…the growth and transformation that comes from facing the losses we have experienced (p10). Some chapters stress the value of support groups and the healing that occurs when members share their pain and are thereby able to reduce their sense of dislocation and alienation. Many adopted adults are able…to construct an authentic, integrated identity (p8) through a combination of support group attendance, counselling, reading and personal reflection.

For many, their recovery work takes many years. I found the chapter written by Robert McLay, who was born in Scotland to a white mother and a Pakistani father, adopted by a white couple and then brought to Australia as a child with his adoptive family, extremely moving. He describes his journey through substance abuse, attempted suicide and self-loathing to a productive life and healthy self-esteem.

The chapter written by Mark Hagland is both thoughtful and thought-provoking. He describes himself as a gay man and a Korean adoptee. Mark explains how he has come to terms with being…a member of diverse, often highly marginalized, categories in society…to reach…a level of self-acceptance and self-actualization that will allow me to be at peace and in harmony in the world (p42). Mark draws parallels between his experience of being gay and his experience of being a transracial adoptee. He comments that gay people and transracial adoptees both find themselves…compelled to consciously construct an identity, often struggling through isolation and confusion to reach clarity and peace (p40).

Many of the contributors recount their stories of reunion, whether it be with their family or with their country of origin. Their reunion narratives are touching, enlightening and heart-rending. Sadly, as a result of denial, ignorance and poor service provision, few of them were well-prepared. The book closes with the statement…Generation after generation we are coming home (p299).

 

Post adoption services

 

None of the contributors is satisfied with the current level of understanding and awareness among service providers or among politicians who fund services. Many of the contributors describe uninformed and sometimes damaging interventions by social workers, counsellors, psychologists and members of the medical profession. There are calls for more education and openness about the underlying issues involved in transracial adoption and an end to the shallow, destructive way in which it is generally presented. Some contributors stress the need for education in the core issues of adoption and loss to assist them to face the challenge…of transforming the wounds of separation into marks of compassion, intensity, and joy (p37).

The transracially adopted contributors to this book describe themselves as different, displaced, abandoned, on the outside, suffering rejection, rage and melancholy, confused, with hearts broken by the separation, with a sense of emptiness, marginalised, emotionally and socially isolated, alienated, humiliated, helpless and shamed. Interestingly, these very same words are often used by parents who have been separated from their children by adoption. This reinforces my view that adoption separation creates a loss that is difficult to grieve and that appropriate post-adoption grief counselling can be very valuable for all those who have been separated from family members by adoption.

 

The future?

 

Looking to the future, John Raible foresees…a backlash…to the global round-up of children from impoverished and war-torn nations (p180). In fact, I believe that the backlash began some years ago and is growing in strength, as adults who were adopted as children gain the courage to speak out honestly and overcome the pressure to feel grateful. The numbers of children adopted into Australia from other countries has fallen over the last ten years and I believe that they will continue to fall. I believe that we are now sophisticated and educated enough to see interracial adoption in its historical context of colonialism and exploitation and that we will soon find that Western governments will abandon the practice and replace it with more ethical, child-centred alternatives. I share the hope of the editors that…our writings create a hopeful vision of a different world, where children of color are neither sold nor expendable, our mothers and families neither erased nor exploited (p3).

Some of the contributors describe what they have experienced as hostility towards intercountry adoptive families. In my view the hostility is not necessarily a sign of racism, but more likely a hostility towards the racial elitism inherent in the practice of intercountry adoption. I predict that, in the near future, instead of taking advantage of less fortunate countries by removing their children from them, inhabitants of ‘First World’ countries will show their concern for the inequities in the world by supporting programmes to improve conditions for those who suffer.

Describing attitudes in ‘Third World’ countries which are currently losing children through intercountry adoption, Tobias Hübinette writes…most governments treat intercountry adoption as a necessary evil, even though they consider it a degrading and humiliating business (p139).

 

Conclusion

 

It is clear from books such as this that many who were adopted transracially have suffered long term grief and loss issues, not because they were not well cared for and loved in their adoptive families, or because they did not build close relationships with their adoptive parents, but in spite of the fact that they were and they did. Clearly, love was not all they needed.

These are examples of people’s experiences and, as with all adoption research, it is impossible to guarantee that they are a representative sample. However, the underlying issues shared by all of them stand out loud and clear and it is these issues, not the personal experiences as such, that I believe we must address, if we care about the best outcomes for children in need of care. Many of the issues faced by those who were adopted transracially also feature in the lives of those who were adopted within their own culture. For those who are adopted into a different culture from the one into which they were born, there are additional challenges to be confronted.

Have we learned from the mistakes of the past? Apparently, we have not. A clear understanding of the history of adoption is vital to inform current and future policy and practice. We no longer remove Aboriginal children from their families and communities and place them in non-Aboriginal homes and we have apologised for the fact that that did happen on a large scale. We no longer routinely remove newborn babies from unmarried mothers. In South Australia adoptions of locally-born children have reduced in the last forty years from almost one thousand per year to one per year. Discussions are currently taking place for a government apology to the many families who were affected by past adoption policies. These policies and practices have changed over time because we came to understand that they created long term, complex emotional issues for those affected.

As a society, in which we care about children at risk, we must now insist that our government stop repeating the mistakes of the past. Those whose main aim is to “create a family” for themselves cannot be allowed to hijack the debate around the future of intercountry adoption. If adoption is now considered not to have been in the best interests of those who are affected by past policies, then we must seriously examine whether or not we can still justify removing children from their parents, families, heritage, culture, language and homeland and allowing them to be adopted into a family, a culture, a language and a country which are all foreign to them, to live with people with whom they share no heritage.

Outsiders Within makes a brave and very valuable contribution to the intercountry adoption debate, because it focuses on the long term outcomes for the children who were adopted. It is educational and enlightening and a moving tribute to the efforts made by those who have been adopted transracially to work through the issues with which they have been presented in life, as a result of the decisions made when they were children, by adults, who claimed to have their best interests at heart. Outsiders Within is a vital addition to the library of anyone who genuinely wants to understand transracial adoption from those who have had to live with it.

© Evelyn Robinson, 2010 counsellor, educator and member of the National Inter Country Adoption Advisory Group (NICAAG). She is author of Adoption and Loss – The Hidden Grief
(first published in 2000) Adoption and Recovery – Solving the mystery of reunion (first published in 2004) and Adoption Reunion – Ecstasy or Agony? (first published in 2009)

Evelyn welcomes contact from interested readers.   erobinson@clovapublications.com

For further information about Evelyn and her work, please visit her web site 

Source : Family Preservation Advocacy

15:30 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Adoption internationale | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : adopté, identité, origine, australie | |  del.icio.us

05/08/2010

Après le séïsme à Haïti, le chaos dans les adoptions américaines [New York Times]

ChildLaw Blog.jpg

NYTimes: After Haiti Quake, the Chaos of U.S. Adoptions



On Jan. 12, a devastating earthquake toppled Haiti’s capital and set off an international adoption bonanza in which some safeguards meant to protect children were ignored.



Leading the way was the Obama administration, which responded to the crisis, and to the pleas of prospective adoptive parents and the lawmakers assisting them, by lifting visa requirements for children in the process of being adopted by Americans.



Although initially planned as a short-term, small-scale evacuation, the rescue effort quickly evolved into a baby lift unlike anything since the Vietnam War. It went on for months; fell briefly under the cloud of scandal involving 10 Baptist missionaries who improperly took custody of 33 children; ignited tensions between the United States and child protection organizations; and swept up about 1,150 Haitian children, more than were adopted by American families in the previous three years, according to interviews with government officials, adoption agencies and child advocacy groups.



Under a sparingly used immigration program, called humanitarian parole, adoptions were expedited regardless of whether children were in peril, and without the screening required to make sure they had not been improperly separated from their relatives or placed in homes that could not adequately care for them.



Some Haitian orphanages were nearly emptied, even though they had not been affected by the quake or licensed to handle adoptions. Children were released without legal documents showing they were orphans and without regard for evidence suggesting fraud. In at least one case, two siblings were evacuated even though American authorities had determined through DNA tests that the man who had given them to an orphanage was not a relative.



In other cases, children were given to families who had not been screened or to families who no longer wanted them.



The results are playing out across the country. At least 12 children, brought here without being formally matched with new families, have spent months in a Pennsylvania juvenile care center while Red Cross officials try to determine their fate. An unknown number of children whose prospective parents have backed out of their adoptions are in foster care. While the authorities said they knew of only a handful of such cases, adoption agents said they had heard about as many as 20, including that of an 8-year-old girl who was bounced from an orphanage in Haiti to a home in Ithaca, N.Y., to a juvenile care center in Queens after the psychologist who had petitioned to adopt her decided she could not raise a young child.



Dozens of children, approaching the age of 16 or older, are too old to win legal permanent status as adoptees, prompting lawmakers in Congress to consider raising the age limit to 18.



Meanwhile, other children face years of legal limbo because they have arrived with so little proof of who they are, how they got here and why they have been placed for adoption that state courts are balking at completing their adoptions.


All I can say is THANK GOD for the white man adopting all them colored babies. The white man's burden sure hasn't gotten any easier after all these years. When will the world finally understand.




Lire l'article complet sur le site du New York Times.

 

Haïti et les adoptions

13:57 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Adoption internationale | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : usa, haïti, adoption | |  del.icio.us