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06/08/2010

Des adultes adoptés transnationalement s'expriment.

Australian Journal of Adoption.jpgTransnationally Adopted Adults Speak Out


The following book review appeared in the Australian Journal of Adoption, Vol 2, No 2 (2010).  This article is protected by copyright. It may be reproduced for non-profit, educational purposes, providing that it is reproduced in its entirety, without alteration.

 

Outsiders Within:
Writing on Transracial Adoption
Edited by Jane Jeong Trenka, Julia Chinyere Oparah and Sun Yung Shin
South End Press, 2006
by Evelyn Robinson, MA, Dip Ed, BSW

 

Outsiders Within makes powerful and fascinating reading. It contains thirty chapters written by thirty different authors. Twenty-five of them identify as adults who were transracially adopted as children. Most were raised in the United States, but six grew up in Europe and four in Australia. Their stories are sometimes tragic, sometimes uplifting, but always interesting. The other contributors have either a personal experience with or a personal interest in transracial adoption. The book also contains art work and poetry. Outsiders Within contains many powerful words and ideas. I have selected some of them to support my comments.

Outsiders Within is an American book and is professionally produced and presented. My only complaint about the book is that I am disturbed by the fact that American writers used to understand the correct use of ‘practise’ vs ‘practice’ and ‘dependent’ vs ‘dependant’ (as you will see if you read work published by American writers some years ago), but now, much to my frustration, many of them have abandoned correct usage.

I highly recommend this book to anyone who has an interest in adoption and especially in transracial adoption. It reinforced many of my long-held views about transracial adoption, which encompasses adoption of children from one country to another and from one racial group to another within the same country. As Ellen Barry, Nobel Peace Prize nominee in 2005, writes: children removed from their own communities and placed in white adoptive homes face lifelong emotional repercussions (p62).

 

The value of personal narratives

 

Transracially adopted adults are described in the book as an untapped source of knowledge (p90) and…expert documenters of their own lives (p262). Much of the research into transracial adoption in the past has represented the views of adoptive parents about how well-adjusted their children were. However, many of the contributors point out that…Repressing grief does not make one “well-adjusted” (p172). It is impossible to judge the lifelong outcomes for adopted people by basing research on children. The editors explain in the introduction that it is often not until transracially adopted people reach middle age that they…reach a point where [they] can acknowledge and heal from the pain of isolation and alienation (p1).

Much of the research into outcomes for transracially adopted people has measured them against members of the society into which they have been adopted and explored how they deviate from the norm (ie the dominant culture). The assumption in such research is that it is healthy for the adopted person to assimilate and that lack of assimilation of the dominant culture represents a failure on their part. The authors in this book stress the importance of recognising the value of the personal narratives of those who were adopted transracially and bemoan the fact that their experience is too often devalued and considered inferior to the opinions of supposed experts.

As John Raible, who is a transracial adoptee and an adoptive father, states: …the literature on transracial adoption will remain incomplete and inadequate until the voices of mature adoptees and family members are included (p182). In order to guide current and future policy and practice, it is vital that we understand what life has been like for mature adults who were transracially adopted as children and how they feel about the impact of adoption separation in their lives.

The political perspective

Some contributors examine transracial adoption from a political standpoint. One points out that…Western economic, military, and empire-building forces that have caused serious and permanent disruptions to families in the Third World are notably absent in many adoption narratives (p261). Not for the first time, intercountry adoption is compared to slavery…Both practices are driven by insatiable consumer demand (p143). Also it is made clear that the mothers who lose their children from ‘Third World’ to ‘First World’ countries are never given a voice. Intercountry adoption is described as…a poverty policy…[which]…brutally punishes women - and their children - for being poor by taking their children away (p86).

Some contributors focus on the over-representation of ‘children of colour’ in the care system, the dangers of terminating parental rights and the push to hasten adoptions. They also point out the dangers in the ‘colour-blind’ approach to transracial adoption. They describe the long term outcomes for the communities who are losing their children and for the children themselves:…children of color who are placed with white adoptive parents also face the real, and potentially devastating, impact of losing their cultural and racial identity (p62).

 

Adoption and loss

 

Many of the contributors describe the profound and complex losses that come with being adopted into a different racial and cultural group from the one into which they were born and their frustration at being pressured to feel grateful for having suffered that loss. “Adoption is like having all of your birth family die and getting a replacement family and being told by society how lucky you are that all of your family is dead but we gave you a new one” (p210). Mark Hagland writes …The gap between one’s self-definition and the identity attributed to one by others has been at the heart of what I call my “cognitive dissonance” as a Korean adoptee (p41).

There are stories of attempted suicide, substance abuse, self-harm, isolation and depression. Beth Kyong Lo advises approaching these issues from a loss and grief perspective (p174). Some of the contributors describe the trials they have faced, while others also describe the efforts they have made to connect with their culture of origin and manage their losses. The narratives centre to a large extent around loss, alienation, sadness, separation, racism, cultural dislocation, second-hand ancestry, patronising attitudes and…the burden of feeling grateful (p274). Sandra White Hawk stresses that…Quality of life is not solely determined by money and possessions. Quality of life is family and sense of belonging (p300). Indigo Williams Willing describes one transracially adopted woman:…Compounding her own sense of difference was that she felt pressured to be “grateful” for being adopted and believed that this silenced her sense of grief and loss (p263).

There is also mention of the on-going effects on the children and grandchildren of those who were transracially adopted and the…intergenerational trauma…a result of the systematic removal of our children (p299).

 

Adoption and recovery

 

The book also contains stories of healing. The editors mention…the growth and transformation that comes from facing the losses we have experienced (p10). Some chapters stress the value of support groups and the healing that occurs when members share their pain and are thereby able to reduce their sense of dislocation and alienation. Many adopted adults are able…to construct an authentic, integrated identity (p8) through a combination of support group attendance, counselling, reading and personal reflection.

For many, their recovery work takes many years. I found the chapter written by Robert McLay, who was born in Scotland to a white mother and a Pakistani father, adopted by a white couple and then brought to Australia as a child with his adoptive family, extremely moving. He describes his journey through substance abuse, attempted suicide and self-loathing to a productive life and healthy self-esteem.

The chapter written by Mark Hagland is both thoughtful and thought-provoking. He describes himself as a gay man and a Korean adoptee. Mark explains how he has come to terms with being…a member of diverse, often highly marginalized, categories in society…to reach…a level of self-acceptance and self-actualization that will allow me to be at peace and in harmony in the world (p42). Mark draws parallels between his experience of being gay and his experience of being a transracial adoptee. He comments that gay people and transracial adoptees both find themselves…compelled to consciously construct an identity, often struggling through isolation and confusion to reach clarity and peace (p40).

Many of the contributors recount their stories of reunion, whether it be with their family or with their country of origin. Their reunion narratives are touching, enlightening and heart-rending. Sadly, as a result of denial, ignorance and poor service provision, few of them were well-prepared. The book closes with the statement…Generation after generation we are coming home (p299).

 

Post adoption services

 

None of the contributors is satisfied with the current level of understanding and awareness among service providers or among politicians who fund services. Many of the contributors describe uninformed and sometimes damaging interventions by social workers, counsellors, psychologists and members of the medical profession. There are calls for more education and openness about the underlying issues involved in transracial adoption and an end to the shallow, destructive way in which it is generally presented. Some contributors stress the need for education in the core issues of adoption and loss to assist them to face the challenge…of transforming the wounds of separation into marks of compassion, intensity, and joy (p37).

The transracially adopted contributors to this book describe themselves as different, displaced, abandoned, on the outside, suffering rejection, rage and melancholy, confused, with hearts broken by the separation, with a sense of emptiness, marginalised, emotionally and socially isolated, alienated, humiliated, helpless and shamed. Interestingly, these very same words are often used by parents who have been separated from their children by adoption. This reinforces my view that adoption separation creates a loss that is difficult to grieve and that appropriate post-adoption grief counselling can be very valuable for all those who have been separated from family members by adoption.

 

The future?

 

Looking to the future, John Raible foresees…a backlash…to the global round-up of children from impoverished and war-torn nations (p180). In fact, I believe that the backlash began some years ago and is growing in strength, as adults who were adopted as children gain the courage to speak out honestly and overcome the pressure to feel grateful. The numbers of children adopted into Australia from other countries has fallen over the last ten years and I believe that they will continue to fall. I believe that we are now sophisticated and educated enough to see interracial adoption in its historical context of colonialism and exploitation and that we will soon find that Western governments will abandon the practice and replace it with more ethical, child-centred alternatives. I share the hope of the editors that…our writings create a hopeful vision of a different world, where children of color are neither sold nor expendable, our mothers and families neither erased nor exploited (p3).

Some of the contributors describe what they have experienced as hostility towards intercountry adoptive families. In my view the hostility is not necessarily a sign of racism, but more likely a hostility towards the racial elitism inherent in the practice of intercountry adoption. I predict that, in the near future, instead of taking advantage of less fortunate countries by removing their children from them, inhabitants of ‘First World’ countries will show their concern for the inequities in the world by supporting programmes to improve conditions for those who suffer.

Describing attitudes in ‘Third World’ countries which are currently losing children through intercountry adoption, Tobias Hübinette writes…most governments treat intercountry adoption as a necessary evil, even though they consider it a degrading and humiliating business (p139).

 

Conclusion

 

It is clear from books such as this that many who were adopted transracially have suffered long term grief and loss issues, not because they were not well cared for and loved in their adoptive families, or because they did not build close relationships with their adoptive parents, but in spite of the fact that they were and they did. Clearly, love was not all they needed.

These are examples of people’s experiences and, as with all adoption research, it is impossible to guarantee that they are a representative sample. However, the underlying issues shared by all of them stand out loud and clear and it is these issues, not the personal experiences as such, that I believe we must address, if we care about the best outcomes for children in need of care. Many of the issues faced by those who were adopted transracially also feature in the lives of those who were adopted within their own culture. For those who are adopted into a different culture from the one into which they were born, there are additional challenges to be confronted.

Have we learned from the mistakes of the past? Apparently, we have not. A clear understanding of the history of adoption is vital to inform current and future policy and practice. We no longer remove Aboriginal children from their families and communities and place them in non-Aboriginal homes and we have apologised for the fact that that did happen on a large scale. We no longer routinely remove newborn babies from unmarried mothers. In South Australia adoptions of locally-born children have reduced in the last forty years from almost one thousand per year to one per year. Discussions are currently taking place for a government apology to the many families who were affected by past adoption policies. These policies and practices have changed over time because we came to understand that they created long term, complex emotional issues for those affected.

As a society, in which we care about children at risk, we must now insist that our government stop repeating the mistakes of the past. Those whose main aim is to “create a family” for themselves cannot be allowed to hijack the debate around the future of intercountry adoption. If adoption is now considered not to have been in the best interests of those who are affected by past policies, then we must seriously examine whether or not we can still justify removing children from their parents, families, heritage, culture, language and homeland and allowing them to be adopted into a family, a culture, a language and a country which are all foreign to them, to live with people with whom they share no heritage.

Outsiders Within makes a brave and very valuable contribution to the intercountry adoption debate, because it focuses on the long term outcomes for the children who were adopted. It is educational and enlightening and a moving tribute to the efforts made by those who have been adopted transracially to work through the issues with which they have been presented in life, as a result of the decisions made when they were children, by adults, who claimed to have their best interests at heart. Outsiders Within is a vital addition to the library of anyone who genuinely wants to understand transracial adoption from those who have had to live with it.

© Evelyn Robinson, 2010 counsellor, educator and member of the National Inter Country Adoption Advisory Group (NICAAG). She is author of Adoption and Loss – The Hidden Grief
(first published in 2000) Adoption and Recovery – Solving the mystery of reunion (first published in 2004) and Adoption Reunion – Ecstasy or Agony? (first published in 2009)

Evelyn welcomes contact from interested readers.   erobinson@clovapublications.com

For further information about Evelyn and her work, please visit her web site 

Source : Family Preservation Advocacy

15:30 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Adoption internationale | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : adopté, identité, origine, australie | |  del.icio.us

16/03/2010

Australie. Des familles prises dans le cauchemar de l'adoption éthiopienne.

Australians caught in Ethiopian adoption nightmare - ABC News.jpgAustralians caught in Ethiopian adoption nightmare.
Australian families have made serious allegations of corruption within Australia's inter-country adoption program with Ethiopia.

 

The ABC has spoken to several families who claim they have been lied to in the course of their adoption process.

They have told heartbreaking stories of their time in Ethiopia - from witnessing their new baby choking on vomit, to a young boy being kept in a bucket to stop him from moving about. One family had to pay a bribe and others found their paperwork falsified with their child's age dramatically altered.

The families say the Federal Government has been slow to act and has not fully investigated the allegations.

When Jody was holding her baby son in her arms, she was distraught to witness an Ethiopian mother discover she had lost hers forever.

"When I was walking [out of the women's centre] a lady screamed and yelled and cried and fell to the ground," she said.

"This mother had come back to the women's shelter [where] she'd placed her baby for adoption. She changed her mind and came back to get it within a couple of days - but it was already gone.

"That was just heart-wrenching and I felt sick."

She added that she thought the process was far too quick to have gone through the proper channels.

Last year Foreign Correspondent revealed corruption within US-Ethiopia adoptions, and more families have spoken out as a result.

It seems some Australians are not protected from corruption despite it being an Australian Government-run program.

The person in charge of the program is Ato Lakew Gebeyehu. ABC News Online made a number of attempts to contact Mr Gebeyehu, but was unable to do so.

Mr Gebeyehu is responsible for Koala House, a transition home for children going to be adopted by Australian families. This home, which is part of the Australian government program, is accused of not properly feeding the children and maintaining their health.

The office of Attorney-General Robert McClelland says a recent review found issues of concern within the program and is working to restructure the program.

ABC News Online has been told by a spokesman for Mr McClelland that Australia will sign a new agreement with Ethiopia, however whether Mr Gebeyehu remains in his position is still to be decided.

But the ABC has obtained documents showing the Howard government knew of serious concerns about the program in 2005 and that the Rudd government was warned again in 2008 by Brussels-based human rights organisation Against Child Trafficking.

 

Koala House

The families interviewed by the ABC have had their names changed because of fears they may lose their children and concerns that life will be made hard for surviving biological relatives in Ethiopia.

Australian parents pay thousands of dollars in fees, donations and aid for the care of their children in Koala House.

But all three families say their children were handed to them with a range of problems including severe malnutrition and pneumonia.

Sarah, who has adopted three Ethiopian children, believes the money she paid to care for her children never reached them.

"In our first adoption we took over about 80 kilos of aid. The majority of that was formula, and because we had a baby we also paid the formula fee for her," she said.

"We were also asked to replace all of the formula she would have consumed during her time she was at Koala House ... and it turned out she was actually fed cow's milk and was lactose intolerant.

"She was massively malnourished when we got her. She had full-blown pneumonia because she'd been swallowing her own vomit."

Sarah's older daughter later explained that she was hardly fed.

"She'd get given rice and carrot mixed together as a meal of porridge for breakfast. Except for when the Australian families came ... [they] would put on a big party ... and when that happened, there would be so much food. But when those families went, then it'd be carrot and rice," she said.

Jody says it was a similar story when she and her husband were in Ethiopia to collect their son from Koala House.

"Our son has attachment issues, but he was never held or cuddled until we got him. He was just picked up to be changed or had a bottle propped up on a pillow," she said.

"We were told when we picked him up that they used to sit him in a bucket so he couldn't learn to move around much. He'd worn all the hair off the back of his head from it rubbing against the bucket.

"A friend of ours had an older child who says they only get one meal a day, which was concerning because the amount of money that we raised for the centre. I raised thousands and thousands."

 

Program reinstated

 

Earlier this month Mr McClelland announced he will lift a temporary suspension of the adoption program, after concerns of possible breaches of the Hague Convention on inter-country adoption.

The convention is in place to ensure the welfare of children is the priority and that international adoptions are used only as a last resort. Australia is a signatory to the convention but Ethiopia is not.

It will resume operating on April 6 with some changes made, but it appears Mr Gebeyehu will stay in charge.

Against Child Trafficking spokeswoman Roelie Post says Mr Gebeyehu was arrested in Ethiopia and held for 12 days on suspicion of trafficking children to Austria in 2008.

Ms Post says her organisation received little response from the Australian Government after alerting it to this and other alleged concerning practices.

"The children are not orphans. The paperwork is often faked. Parents are declared dead who are not dead and children are given the wrong ages," she said.

"Our organisation sent a letter to the Australian Government with 1,600 pages attached to it with evidence of trafficking in adoptions relating to Australia and India.

"Also we alerted the Australian authorities to Ethiopia, especially to the Ethiopian representative whose name was mentioned in a trafficking case in Austria."

Ms Post does not accept the Australian Government's explanation that Mr Gebeyehu's arrest was just a case of mistaken identity. She thinks there are serious issues that need to be investigated and that the case was mishandled.

"The children come from the same pool, therefore the situation [in Australia] is comparable to adoptions in the US or the Netherlands or any other country."

Sarah says she is aware of older adoptive children recognising each other from Ethiopia and while she stops short of calling it child trafficking, she says it is "on the fringes".

"I have heard that has happened in Australia, where children have known each other prior to coming under Lakew's care - that's a very big coincidence," she said.

 

Blocked

 

All families interviewed by the ABC claim they were not supplied with paperwork and vital information about their children and were blocked by officials from finding information on biological families.

When Anne and her husband adopted their daughter, they say almost all the information about their child's origin was falsified.

They were told she was abandoned, but when through their own search they tracked down the biological parents, they discovered this was a lie.

"The [birth parents] were both devastated, particularly the father. They were so sad to think that their child would have grown up thinking she had been abandoned by them.

"They told us that they could never have done such a thing to their child. They agonised over the decision to relinquish their daughter and they did it legitimately.

"What makes us angry is that our daughter was stripped of her history and there seems to be no valid reason for this to have happened.

"Our child was given a new name and a new birth date and was passed off as having been abandoned."

Sarah adopted two sisters in 2002. She and her husband were told the "orphaned" children were four years old and nine months, with no living relatives.

They later found the eldest daughter was not four, but closer to eight. They also discovered the girls had a mother and that the eldest had two brothers whom she was allegedly warned never to mention.

"She told us exactly where they were and we located them two days later and the brothers told us at the time that she was eight years old," she said.

Jody was also told that her son was abandoned and there was no information about his mother. But years later when her family returned to Ethiopia for their second adoption, they discovered this was not the case.

"With a bit of what we call African persuasion, which is $500, we managed to get a photograph, full name and full details of his birth mother," she said.

"The whole place revolves around money under the table."

 

Source: ABC News | 16 mars 2010.

 

Trafic d’enfants éthiopiens : la main qui anime le berceau brisé

L’Ethiopie est le lieu d’un scandaleux trafic d’enfants, note Alemayehu G. Mariam. Une pratique dans laquelle les agences et les autorités éthiopiennes conspirent afin de rassembler des enfants autochtones destinés à l’adoption à l’étranger. Les conditions dans lesquelles ces enfants sont «récoltés» en masse et soumis à la marchandisation font qu’ils sont des millions à travers le monde à pleurer d’avoir été arrachés à leurs familles et à leur pays, dénonce Mariam.

Source: Pambazuka News, 14 mars 2010, Numéro 138.

16:05 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Adoption internationale | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : australie, éthiopie | |  del.icio.us

11/04/2009

Exploration des liens entre les adoptions passées et le suicide.

 

Dr Susan Gair.jpgExploring links between past adoptions and suicide.

 

Un article traduit en français par Kim Myung-Sook et publié sur son blog Fabriquée en Corée.

 

 

Les histoires de dépressions et de pensées suicidaires étaient fréquentes chez les personnes adoptées et les parents de naissance qui participaient aux recherches menées par une travailleuse sociale enseignante de l'Université James Cook, Dr Susan Gair.

 

Les recherches portaient sur la collecte des données empiriques par des entrevues avec les parents de naissance, les adoptés et les parents adoptifs.

 

Dr Gair a déclaré que ses recherches montraient que les processus des adoptions passées n'étaient pas idéaux et que les récentes réformes iront très loin pour améliorer les futures situations d'adoptions.

 

"En février, The Adoption Bill 2009 (Le Projet loin d'adoption 2009) a été introduit au Parlement du Queensland, accordant plus de souplesse et de choix aux personnes impliquées dans l'adoption. Ce projet de loi ramène Queensland dans le rang d'autres États australiens", dit-elle.

 

"La théorisation des pratiques des adoptions passées peut et devrait informer la pratique clinique et la législation et les politiques des adoptions futures", a déclaré le Dr Gair.

 

Dr Gair a dit que l'étude révélait des histoires de dépression, de tentatives de suicide et de suicides.

 

"Il y avait des thèmes communs dans les histoires: l'impuissance, les sentiments de rejet et de désespoir", a déclaré le Dr Gair.

 

"Beaucoup de participants ont évoqué comment ils se sentaient obligés de subir en silence ces sentiments puisque la société dictait un niveau de reconnaissance et de honte associée à l'adoption".

 

Certaines des histoires racontées par les parents de naissance révèlent que, au moment de l'adoption, on leur a dit qu'ils n'avaient aucun droit et de simplement "continuer avec leur vie".

 

"Certaines personnes adoptées ont discuté des sentiments de dépression, d'être un "citoyen de seconde classe', et d'avoir "emprunté une identité". Un parent adoptif a parlé de la façon dont son enfant est mort par suicide après avoir été incapable de faire face d'autres rejets", a déclaré le Dr Gair.

 

Le rapport a également présenté des histoires où les participants ont identifié "des points tournants" qui ont été décrits comme ayant "sauvé (leur) vie". Ces événements impliquaient surtout de trouver un lien avec leurs parents/enfants biologiques, rencontrer un grand-parent ou de trouver un apparentement sur l'internet.

 

Source: James Cook University. April 2009

 

 

Repères

 

- Les adolescents adoptés sont-ils plus à risque de suicide que leurs pairs non adoptés ? Brigitte Prati
Dans les pays développés, les enfants adoptés représentent moins de 1% des naissances, mais ils peuvent représenter jusqu’à 20% des patients dans les services de psychiatrie. Ce déséquilibre soulève une interrogation sur le lien entre adoption et pathologie et, plus particulièrement, entre adoption et crise suicidaire à l’adolescence.
À partir d’une revue de la littérature scientifique et de son expérience clinique, l’auteur propose quelques hypothèses psychodynamiques et dégage des pistes de réflexion sur cette problématique.
Cairn.

 

- Suicide, psychiatric illness, and social maladjustment in intercountry adoptees in Sweden: a cohort study. Dr Anders Hjern.
L' expérience scandinave. Johanne Lemieux, travailleuse sociale Bureau de consultation en adoption de Québec, Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada.
Lire la suite.

 

- Les enfants adoptés sont-ils plus fragiles que les autres ?
Si la plupart vont bien, l'étude "The Mental Health of US Adolescents Adopted in Infancy" met en évidence un peu plus de troubles du comportement, d'anxiété et de dépression que chez les non-adoptés.
Lire la suite.


- Adoption as a Risk Factor for Attempted Suicide During Adolescence. Gail Slap, Elizabeth Goodman, and Bin Huang.
Depression, impulsivity, and aggression during adolescence have been associated with both adoption and suicidal behavior. Studies of adopted adults suggest that impulsivity, even more than depression, may be an inherited factor that mediates suicidal behavior. However, the association between adoption and adolescent suicide attempts and the mechanisms that might explain it remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the following: 1) whether suicide attempts are more common among adolescents who live with adoptive parents rather than biological parents; 2) whether the association is mediated by impulsivity, and 3) whether family connectedness decreases the risk of suicide attempt regardless of adoptive or biological status.
Pediatrics. Avril 2001.

 

 

07:32 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Etude - Recherche | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : australie, adoption, suicide, troubles | |  del.icio.us

22/08/2008

Enfants kidnappés en Inde adoptés par des familles australiennes.

Stolen Children India.jpgKidnapped children adopted by Australians.

AT LEAST 13 young children from India were kidnapped, given new identities and adopted by unsuspecting Australian families, according to Indian police.

The allegations, detailed in Time magazine, centre on a dubious Chennai orphanage-cum-adoption agency called Malaysian Social Services.

The agency was able to arrange adoptions for Australians, even after an Indian court cancelled one family's proposed adoption in 1995 because MSS had lied when it claimed a five-year-old girl was abandoned.

It continued to send children to Australia - to Queensland, Tasmania and the ACT - before its principals were arrested over the kidnapping racket in 2005.

Citing Indian court documents, Time said children had been snatched by gangs and sold to MSS for 10,000 rupees ($263) each. Of 120 children it sent overseas, at least 13 went to Australia.

One was a two-year-old girl identified only as Zabeen, who was snatched while playing outside a tea shop in northern Chennai, and adopted by a Queensland couple through MSS in 2000, along with her purported sibling, another child stolen from a different family.


Zabeen's mother, Fatima, told the magazine: "I thought someone had taken her for her kidney."


In 2005, she and her husband identified their daughter from photographs taken from MSS files. "When she knows that she has her parents here, I'm sure that she will come looking for us," she said.

Queensland's Child Safety Minister, Margaret Keech, said the allegations were "very concerning", and promised that Adoption Services Queensland would co-operate with investigating authorities.

The state's other MSS child was adopted in 1995, before the time most of the kidnappings are thought to have happened, between 1998 and 1999.

The Sydney Morning Herald


-> Pour la traduction en français

Consulter le blog "Fabriquée en Corée" de Kim Myung-Sook.

 

->  'Stolen babies' adoption racket

A Canberra family who adopted two children from India is still waiting for an investigation into their case more than a year after notifying Indian authorities.
Julia Rollings and her husband Barry adopted brother and sister Akil and Sabila from Madras Social Service Guild orphanage in Chennai, in August 1998.
The Canberra Times. 24.08.08.

 

->  Adoption racket kids 'may be returned'

ANY children kidnapped in an overseas adoption racket will likely have to be returned to their families, federal Opposition Leader Brendan Nelson says.
The Australian. 23.08.08.

 

Stolen Children Australia.jpg->  Un bureau d'adoption indien proposait des enfants enlevés

Un trafic international d'enfants a été mis au jour en Australie. Des filles et garçons, originaires d'Inde, auraient été enlevés à leurs parents et proposés à l'adoption à des couples étrangers via un prétendu orphelinat. C'est ce qu'ont annoncé samedi les autorités australiennes. Selon le journal Time, jusqu'à 120 enfants kidnappés auraient probablement été adoptés par des parents étrangers. 14 d'entre eux vivent à présent en Australie.

Un porte-parole du gouvernement de l'Etat australien du Queensland a confirmé que la société Malaysian Social Services (MSS) de Madras (Chennai), en Inde, intervenait comme intermédiaire lors des adoptions. D'après la police indienne, MSS demandait de l'argent en échange des enfants et ils recevaient une nouvelle identité.

Une femme de Madras a confié au Time que sa fille de 2 ans, Zabeen, a été enlevée il y a 7 ans alors qu'elle jouait dehors. Cette mère a reconnu sa fillette dans une brochure de MSS. Le couple australien qui a adopté Zabeen a déclaré n'avoir jamais soupçonné un instant que l'enfant aurait pu avoir été kidnappé.

Source : AFP/7sur7.

 

->  International Adoption: Aid or Trade

Since beginning of last year there is much debate about intercountry adoption in The Netherlands. It started with the news of a stolen, kidnapped Indian child who allegedly had been adopted by Dutch citizens.

'Marie Claire’ - March 2008 - Anneke Bots.
'India demands stolen adopted child back from the Netherlands'. 'Dutch couple in prison in Sri Lanka because of illegal adoption'. There are scandals all over and criticism on intercountry adoption – yes, also on those of Madonna and Angelina – grows. What is going on?

He lives since seven year with his adoptive parents in the Netherlands, when all of a sudden his biological mother from India announced herself. Nine-year-old Rahul recently became world news. The boy had not at all been voluntarily relinquished, said his mother, but was stolen during the night. Rahul’s story is not the only recent adoption scandal. A Dutch couple was arrested this summer in Sri Lanka because they were trying to take a baby illegally out of the country. And last October the world was shocked by the images of hundreds of so-called orphans from Darfur, who were about to be taken out of the country by a French aid organisation. Another shocking fact? In Guatemala one out of a hundred children is especially delivered for export to the US. The mothers get 600 to 1600 dollar per child, adoptive parents pay around 30.000 dollar for a baby. The difference goes into the pockets of lawyers, baby brokers and directors of orphanages. The reason for all these wrongdoings: the demand for adoptions bypasses the offer, so all children are welcome. According to Unicef there are worldwide fifty potential adopters lining up per adoptable child.

The full article in dutch can be found on 'Adoptie Trefpunt' website. 

Source: Romania - For export only. Roelie Post.

 

->  Adult Example of the Effect to be Stolen and Adopted.

My name is Vanessa. I was born in India and adopted into Canada at the age of eight. I was stolen from my family in India at the age of 4 and then hidden and then adopted out of the country. You can see my video on www.youtube.com/iwasstolen There is a part one and part two to the video. Both videos together are 7 minutes long. I have been searching for my family for quite a long time and any help that you could give would be greatly appreciated.
I am desperate to find my family. My adoption did not turn out and the people that had adopted me had been found mentally unfit to adopt children in Canada but through private international adoption they were able to adopt me into Canada in 1978. I was kept in an attic and sexually and physically abused until children’s services took me away at the age of 14. Any help that you could give me would be greatly appreciated. 28/11/2007.

Source: UAI - News.

 

->  Children snatched & stolen, racket is called adoption

4 vidéos, parus en octobre 2007 dans CNN-IBN, sur le commerce d'enfants volés en Inde et vendus aux parents d'autres pays.
Articles traduits en français sur Fabriquée en Corée.

-> Child adoption in India needs to be transparent

Single and unwed mothers are most vulnerable to child traffickers.
Videos IBN Live : 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

 

->  The adoption market

A Frontline investigation lays bare a multi-billion-dollar, countrywide racket in inter-country adoption of children, run by private adoption agencies that exploit the loopholes in the rules.
Source: Frontline. Asha Krishnakumar. 2005.

 

->  Plusieurs familles québécoises ont peut-être adopté des enfants kidnappés en Inde

Une vingtaine de couples québécois, qui ont déjà adopté un enfant en Inde ou qui s'apprêtent à le faire, vivent dans l'angoisse parce qu'un réseau de trafic d'enfants vient d'être découvert dans ce pays.
Devant ces inquiétudes, le Secrétariat québécois à l'adoption internationale ne permet l'ouverture d'aucun autre dossier.
Au cours des dernières semaines, 188 enfants, que l'on craint avoir été kidnappés ou obtenus contre de l'argent, ont été retirés de sept orphelinats indiens souvent insalubres.
Source : Canoe. Archives 04/05/2001.

17/04/2008

Les "enfants volés" en Australie ont-ils servi de cobayes ?

[Via "Courrier International"].


Kathleen Mills, qui témoignait devant une commission d'enquête sénatoriale sur la compensation financière des "générations volées", a fait une révélation retentissante le 15 avril, rapporte le quotidien Sydney Morning Herald. Pendant les années 1920 et 1930, assure cette Aborigène, les petits pensionnaires métis du centre Kahlin, à Darwin, ont reçu des injections de médicaments expérimentaux contre la lèpre, avec des conséquences dramatiques pour leur santé. Une deuxième personne est venue corroborer cette information, affirmant que des expérimentations sur des "enfants volés" ont également eu lieu à la léproserie de la ville, et ce jusqu'aux années 1960. "Ce que vous avez entendu aujourd'hui n'est pas le pire", a déclaré Kathleen Mills, qui demande au gouvernement d'ouvrir ses archives, qu'elle qualifie de "boîte de Pandore".


Children were guinea pigs, inquiry told


A STOLEN generations member's claim that Aboriginal children were taken from their families and used as "guinea pigs" to trial a leprosy drug has shocked the Federal Government into scouring its records for more information.

Aboriginal elder Kathleen Mills made the allegation yesterday in Darwin on day one of a Senate inquiry into compensation for the stolen generations.

She said some children held at the city's Kahlin Compound in the 1920s and '30s had been injected with a leprosy serum that made them sick and almost killed them. The compound, a holding house for half-caste Aborigines, closed after World War II.

While Ms Mills's claim was based on the recollections of her uncle, a medical orderly at the compound, it was given weight last night by another source, who confirmed a Darwin family had been subjected to similar testing at another institution in the city, the leprosarium, as late as the 1960s. This may suggest such experimentation was systemic.

"What you heard today wasn't the worst of all the stories," Ms Mills told the Herald last night. "Whether you're prodding them with sticks and needles, the actual removal of children from their mothers and their countries without any records is the issue."

She told the inquiry: "These are the things that have not been spoken about. As well as being taken away, they were used … there are a lot of things that Australia does not know about."

Ms Mills said information to do with the testing would be in health department archives and she called on the Government to assist "opening Pandora's box".

The Health Minister, Nicola Roxon, promised to do anything she could to get the facts. "These are obviously very serious allegations," Ms Roxon said. "I have requested my department to examine their archives to determine if there are any documents that can shed any light on this situation."

Ms Mills said her uncle had told her about the drug's effects. "It made our people very ill and he said the treatment almost killed them," she told ABC radio outside the inquiry.

The Greens Senator Bob Brown, who was at the inquiry, said: "It's clearly a matter that's worrying indigenous people so it should be investigated. First, we have to find out if there's any records of experimentation."

An expert on leprosy, Clem Boughton, said he had not heard of such claims but it was possible they were triggered by early uses of sulfone drugs which provided the first effective treatment of leprosy. A former professor of infectious diseases at Prince Henry Hospital in Sydney, now in his 80s, Dr Boughton said the claims should be treated with caution.

"It could be they were using preparations of sulfones to see how effective they were," Dr Boughton said. "This would not be deliberately targeted at Aboriginal people because there was a lot of leprosy around then. Patients themselves would want to have the treatment even if it was a bit experimental because it was their only hope."

Ms Mills said she raised it to highlight the problem Aborigines had accessing their records. But she worried last night it would detract from the bigger issue of compensation. "It was like throwing the cat among the pigeons and there's a lot of fluttering now."

with AAP and Mark Metherell

15:56 Écrit par collectif a & a dans Communiqué | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : australie, aborigènes, générations volées | |  del.icio.us

01/02/2008

Les excuses aux aborigènes australiens seront-elles suffisantes ?

6b7a8a287d14fd07ffefc6d701392548.jpgLe premier ministre australien Kevin Rudd, ouvrira la session parlementaire, le 13 février prochain, par un discours d'excuses à la communauté aborigène, comme il s'y était engagé avant la victoire des travaillistes fin novembre 2007.
Il présentera des excuses formelles aux "générations volées" qui désignent ces milliers d'enfants autochtones enlevés de force à leurs familles à partir des années 1930 et jusqu'aux années 70. Ces enfants étaient ensuite placés dans des institutions ou des familles adoptives européennes pour les assimiler à la culture blanche et leur donner une éducation occidentale.

 

Ce n'est seulement en avril 1997, quand paraît le rapport « Bringing them home » (Ramenez-les à la maison), que le pays réalise ce que son gouvernement a réalisé au cours du siècle précèdent.

 

A partir de 1950, chaque Etat australien disposait d’un arsenal législatif permettant à la police et aux agences gouvernementales d’enlever les enfants métis de la communauté aborigène, et de les confier à des institutions spécialisées.

 

Le but déclaré de ces placements d’office était de faciliter l’assimilation culturelle des métis dans la société australienne blanche.

 

Le rapport se conclut par des mots d’une rare violence : « Les communautés et familles aborigènes ont enduré des violations flagrantes de leurs droits fondamentaux. Ces violations continuent d’affecter les aborigènes aujourd’hui. Il s’agissait d’un génocide, destiné à anéantir les cultures, communautés et familles aborigènes, pourtant vitales au précieux et inaliénable héritage de l’Australie ».

 

De dix mille à cent mille enfants sont concernés dans l'ensemble de l'Australie, selon les évaluations. Le Réseau international pour les droits des Aborigènes australiens (Eniar, une ONG européenne) affirme qu'"entre 10 et 30%" des enfants aborigènes ont été enlevés.  Beaucoup ont souffert de maltraitance et de sévices sexuels.

 

Jenny Macklin, la ministre des Affaires indigènes, a précisé que ses excuses nationales constitueraient la première tâche du nouveau Parlement désormais dominé par les travaillistes.

 

"Ces excuses seront présentées au nom du gouvernement australien et n'attribue aucune culpabilité à la génération actuelle du peuple australien", a souligné Macklin dans un communiqué.

 

Mais le gouvernement annonce aussi qu'il n' indemnisera pas les aborigènes pour leurs générations perdues. Il rejète toute compensation, craignant une avalanche de demandes.

 

Documents

- Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families

- Bringing them home - Community guide

Link-Up Services 

 

+ + +

 

Geen schadevergoeding voor Gestolen Generatie

De Australische premier, Kevin Rudd, heeft maandag 7 januari gemeld dat de zogenaamde Gestolen Generatie van Aboriginal kinderen geen schadevergoeding krijgt. De regering zal wel investeren in betere gezondheids- en onderwijsvoorzieningen voor de Aboriginals.

 

Inheemse leiders hadden 869 miljoen dollar schadevergoeding geëist voor de duizenden Aboriginal kinderen die tussen 1870 en 1967 bij hun familie weggehaald werden. De slachtoffers werden in weeshuizen of bij blanke families ondergebracht zodat ze zouden assimileren naar de normen van de blanke Australische bevolking.

 

Ondanks bewijzen van traumatische ervaringen en de aanbeveling voor een schadevergoeding in een rapport uit 1997 over de Gestolen Generatie, gaat de regering niet in op de eis van de Aboriginals. "Onze prioriteit is de kloof tussen de levensverwachting van inheemse en niet-inheemse Australiërs te dichten en de economische onafhankelijkheid van Aboriginals te verhogen. Daarom zullen we geld investeren in gezondheids-en onderwijsvoorzieningen", zegt Jenny Macklin, de Australische minister van Inheemse Zaken. Tijdens de volgende zitting van het parlement zal de premier als blijk van respect voor de Aboriginals een nationaal excuus uitspreken voor de Gestolen Generatie.

 

Naar de rechtbank

De actiegroep Stolen Generation overweegt om de zaak voor de rechtbank te brengen. Volgens voorzitster Christine King zijn verontschuldigingen van de regering niet voldoende. "Iedereen heeft recht op een schadevergoeding bij een schending van mensenrechten. Blijkbaar geldt dat niet voor Aboriginals", zegt King.

 

In augustus 2007 ontving Bruce Trevorrow (50) als eerste Aboriginal een schadevergoeding voor de mentale gevolgen van de abrupte scheiding van zijn familie toen hij dertien maanden oud was.


Oorsprong : Mondiaal Nieuws

 

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